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  3. Ann Milligan

    German Spitz, Medium

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    This breed has information on veterinary care events (VC) insurance data. Files Available for Download: GERMAN SPITZ, MEDIUM VC 2006-2011.pdf The VC file has rates of most common and highest risk conditions requiring veterinary care. Agria Dog Breed Statistics FAQs.pdf This file addresses frequently asked questions regarding Agria Dog Breed Statistics.
  4. Ann Milligan

    Petit Brabançon

    Version 1.0.0

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    This breed has information on veterinary care events (VC) insurance data. Files Available for Download: PETIT BRABANCON VC 2006-2011.pdf The VC file has rates of most common and highest risk conditions requiring veterinary care. Agria Dog Breed Statistics FAQs.pdf This file addresses frequently asked questions regarding Agria Dog Breed Statistics.
  5. Ann Milligan

    Great Dane

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    This breed has information on both veterinary care events (VC) and LIFE insurance data (mortality). Files Available for Download: GREAT DANE VC 2006-2011.pdf The VC file has rates of most common and highest risk conditions requiring veterinary care. GREAT DANE LIFE 2006-2011.pdf The LIFE file has rates of most common and highest risk causes of death. Agria Dog Breed Statistics FAQs.pdf This file addresses frequently asked questions regarding Agria Dog Breed Statistics.
  6. Ann Milligan

    Keeshond

    Version 1.0.0

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    This breed has information on veterinary care events (VC) insurance data. Files Available for Download: KEESHOND VC 2006-2011.pdf The VC file has rates of most common and highest risk conditions requiring veterinary care. Agria Dog Breed Statistics FAQs.pdf This file addresses frequently asked questions regarding Agria Dog Breed Statistics.
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  8. Why do people choose the dogs they do and how does that influence the health and welfare of dogs? How can what we know – and don’t know – about these complexities inform our efforts to educate people and safeguard the well-being of our canine companions? A new open access article is an excellent, comprehensive review of published evidence about factors influence dog acquisition: Acquiring a Pet Dog: A Review of Factors Affecting the Decision-Making of Prospective Dog Owners By Katrina E. Holland, Dogs Trust. Animals 2019, 9(4), 124 See Attached (internal): Acquiring a Pet Dog - A Review of Factors Affecting the Decision-Making of Prospective Dog Owners The ‘Simple Summary’: “Each year, many people around the world get a pet dog. With so many different types and breeds of dogs available, and a variety of sources from which to obtain a dog, the process of getting a dog can be complex. The decisions involved in this process are likely influenced by a variety of human- and dog-related factors and this review explores the factors that appear to be the most important.” The paper contains a wealth of information and extensive review of research on the topic. Key points: “Across the stages of dog acquisition there is potential for practices that may promote or compromise canine welfare.” “those working in the canine welfare sector, [must] refine their ability to identify and respond to trends in the behavior of potential dog owners.” “The most widely reported factors associated with acquisition behavior include: the dog’s physical appearance, behavior and health; social influences, such as trends in the popularity of certain breeds; demographic and socioeconomic factors; and the owner’s previous ownership experience.” “Overall, the research discussed in this paper highlights that complex interactions likely underpin the various factors that might influence prospective owners’ motivators and behaviors.” COMPLEX! That is the real take home message. Many in the dog world have been trying to get the message out to people about the risks for poor health and compromised welfare for certain breeds and similar concerns based on the sources of dogs. However, for those from welfare and veterinary backgrounds especially, it seems obvious that getting a healthy pet should be the number one priority. Much of the cited research makes it clear that – although the motivations are complex – health is not at the top of the list for many who are making the decision to get a dog. Even if people do ‘research’ or seek advice, it may not sway them from a deep-seated preference for a specific breed. This may be most marked for those with an affinity for brachycephalic breeds which may be based on their ‘infantile” appearance, the dogs’ strong human attachment. I have said in presentations and articles that if a consumer's strongest desire is for, e.g. a dog with a specific appearance, with specific behavior traits, maybe even related to the need for intense care-giving ... then stressing the importance of health may not be effective. I liken it to, e.g, telling a young person who is intent on acquiring a fast, loud, trendy car that they should, first and foremost, be looking for a vehicle that has low fuel consumption. The information being provided may be about a factor not even on their radar. These challenges and issues all underlie our focus at the 4th International Dog Health Workshop (IDHW) we are combining attention to addressing issues related to Extremes and Exaggerations (of conformation) with identifying communication strategies to promote human behavior change. At the 4th IDHW we also have a theme on Supply and Demand, which is integrally involved with/influenced by these same issues. Even if people do adequate research on ideal sources of acquisition for dogs (e.g. approved breeders) they may not actually access the better sources due to, if not impulse buying, at least a desire for a timely purchase. An additional concern is that consumers may be oblivious as to the actual source of their dog. Is the ‘breeder’ - selling online or kindly offering to meet you somewhere to save you trouble finding their kennel - a good, health-conscious breeder or a representative of a puppy mill? Have the dogs at shelters/rescues been purchased from auctions or puppy farms – with good intention, perhaps – but with what ramifications.? How do you determine a community-based, good quality rescue from what is essentially a commercial re-homing business? And again, source might not be high on that decision-making list for many consumers, perhaps more a matter of convenience. We know that the best-qualified and highest quality breeders cannot come close to supplying demand. In some countries, e.g. Sweden, rules and societal pressure for responsible dog ownership exist and are enforced, and welfare is very high. In general, people do not acquire pets if they cannot fulfill the criteria. Elsewhere? As there has been an increased acknowledgement of dogs being a ‘member of the family’ and ‘good for human health and welfare’, in many countries the pet industry, veterinarians, and even welfare groups have pushed for increased dog ownership. This may have been with good intentions, but an increase in demand, without a consideration of supply, has supported the increase in commercial breeding, questionable online marketing, illegal or uncontrolled trade/importation and even proliferation of sources which are seemingly impossible to regulate. COMPLEX! The author of the attached paper has done a good job covering all the possible stages of decision-making involved with acquiring a dog, but admits that even the extensive literature has limitations. There are so many factors – attitudes, social, physical – about the people – about the dogs, etc. – that no studies have been able to truly address the complete picture. Given the complexity, it seems clear that effective education and communication will never be easy, straightforward or ‘one-size fits all’. To effect human behavior change the messages must be targeted based on specific breeds (e.g. brachycephalic breed acquisition seems different than for other breeds), consumer characteristics (e.g. age, attitudes and other factors), and perhaps region, country and more. It is obvious that this will need collective and collaborative actions across many stakeholder groups and there will no doubt be specific actions identified at the 4th IDHW as we work together to enhance the health and welfare of dogs. Thanks to Katarina Holland and Dogs Trust for this contribution to the literature on this complex topic. Other resources: Article | Video Don't know or don't care? Presentation at Human Behaviour Change for Animals Conference 2016. PDF Don’t Know or Don’t Care_Bonnett_Sandoe_2016 HumanBehaviourChangeConference
  9. Ann Milligan

    Why did crossbreeding become taboo?

    Why did cross breeding become taboo in the world of pedigree dogs? Author, Ingemar Borelius discusses the history of the purebred dog - breed standards, breeding between varieties of breeds, effects of the reduction in heterozygosity/narrowing gene pools and current efforts and measures taken to sustain genetic diversity in breeds with the aim of addressing health and welfare issues. Specific breeds mentioned in this writing are the Retrievers and several others (Spaniels, Lundehund, German pinscher, Kromfohrländer...) . Article-Ingemar Borelius -- Why did crossbreeding become taboo -PDF-
  10. Prof. Dr. Peter Friedrich covers recent F.C.I. breed standard revisions adopted to clarify functional aspects sought in the breed (including the complex of traits of concern in the head area) and comments on application of the JLPP test and other factors that impact genetic diversity, health and welfare of this breed.
  11. Here we feature a text entitled The struggle against hypertypes: an old dog fancier’s point of view, by Raymond Triquet, France from the book, Standards, Health and Genetics in the Dog. (Read more about the book here.) "PREAMBLE... This text has been published in French in three journals (Ethnozootechnie, Revue de la Cynophilie Française, and the Bulletin de la SADB); the originality of its presentation in this book does not therefore lie in a new version of the text in French, but in its distribution to a wider international audience through its English translation." The English Version The struggle against hypertypes - an old dog fancier's point of view (full) Raymond Triquet (France) -PDF- For the French version see - Ethnozootechnie n° 93 – 2012. pp 89-92. LA LUTTE CONTRE LES HYPERTYPES, LE POINT DE VUE D'UN VIEUX CYNOPHILE -- Raymond TRIQUET (Internal link) _cle0fcd21-141.pdf
  12. 2019 - Denmark - Publisher: Companion Animal Group, Danish Veterinary Association Antibiotic Use Guidelines for Companion Animal Practice (2nd ed)
  13. We invite all participants of the 4th International Dog Health Workshop (IDHW) to present a poster to facilitate information transfer and foster networking opportunities. Posters will be displayed from the Thursday reception until Saturday lunch in the reception/coffee/public areas at the workshop venue.
  14. Ann Milligan

    Support IPFD - Donations

    All donations are handled via PayPal. Make a donation to support IPFD and its programs or... Make a donation to support the Harmonization of Genetic Testing for Dogs initiative
  15. Following on from my blog on the Seminar for the FBDCA we are thrilled to find that the French Bulldog Club of England has shared their Breed Health and Conservation Plan (BHCP). Link here; PDF attached, below. These plans are being assembled by the health team at The Kennel Club, until recently spearheaded by Katy Evans (now the Jane H. Booker Chair in Canine Genetics at The Seeing Eye in the USA). Similar to coverage in my talk (video link here), the focus is very broad in the BHCP and makes clear the challenges ahead for this breed, internationally. The BHCP incorporates statistics from Sweden and Britain, from our IPFD Partners Agria Pet Insurance/Agria Djurförsäkring and VetCompass. Work like the BHCPs in the UK, Breed-specific Breeding Strategies from Sweden (RAS) and Finland (JTO) and others will be incorporated into our new development, the IPFD Health Strategy Database for Dogs (HSDD) coming soon. Then we will be able to provide an interactive resource where 'all' health information can be accessed to inform the great efforts being made by groups throughout the world. Congrats and thanks to The KC and the French Bulldog Club of England. breed_health_and_conservation_plan_-_french_bulldog_final__1_.pdf
  16. Dave St. Louis

    Preview of IPFD Annual Report 2018

    A preview of IPFD's 2018 Annual Report, which is available for download here on DogWellNet.com. Please be sure to share this video and link with your friends and colleagues to show the important work being done by the IPFD and its supporters.
  17. Ann Milligan

    Cambridge Puppy Nostril Study

    Cambridge University is carrying out an important research project into the development of the nostrils in brachycephalic (short-faced) dog breeds. The breeds in this study are French Bulldogs, English Bulldogs and Pugs.
  18. Dave St. Louis

    IPFD Annual Report 2018: Hitting Our Stride

    In 2018, our fourth full year of operation, we focused our efforts on key initiatives, including: Harmonization of Genetic Testing for Dogs (HGTD); planning for the 4th International Dog Health Workshop (IDHW) in May 2019; and lending an independent voice in addressing complex and often controversial challenges, such as the health and welfare issues in brachycephalic breeds.
  19. The Harmonization of Genetic Testing for Dogs (HGTD) and several of our Leadership GTPs were recently featured in a USA Today article on Dog Genetic Testing.
  20. Ann Milligan

    Keeshond

  21. 4th IDHW: Don't Miss Out - Register Now! News & Highlights IPFD Annual Report 2018: Hitting Our Stride Make a Donation Stay Informed!
  22. Dave St. Louis

    Dutch Kennel Club

    Raad van Beheer (The Dutch Kennel Club (DKC)) is the official kennel club of The Netherlands. Founded in 1902, it currently represents around 200 breed clubs with 150,000 members. The DKC is a proud sponsor of IPFD's Harmonization of Genetic Testing for Dogs Initiative.
  23. Aimee Llewellyn-Zaidi

    Research - Long-term impact of DNA tests on dog diseases

    2019 Lewis TW, Mellersh CS. Changes in mutation frequency of eight Mendelian inherited disorders in eight pedigree dog populations following introduction of a commercial DNA test. Plos One, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0209864 DNA Testing - General Subject: DNA Testing Type: Research Journal/Source: peer-reviewed research publication Authors/Researchers: University, Kennel Club (IPFD Partners); HGTD Participants Recommended For: Veterinarians, Owners/Breeders This study is one of the very few to investigate the impact of DNA testing on changing a dog population's disease risk. The research looked at determining changes in frequency of disease causing mutations (how common a mutant gene is in a population) as a result of breeding-pair selection based on DNA test results. The results indicated that there has been an overall decline in disease causing mutations in the 8 diseases in 8 breeds investigated. While the paper recognises that there can be variations in how quickly a disease is reduced or eliminated (such as breed population size), it concluded that where dog breeders appear to incorporate DNA test results as part of breeding plans, there is success in decreasing the frequency of mutation. The study looked at: prcd-PRA in Labrador Retriever and Cocker Spaniel, HC in Staffordshire Bull Terriers, EIC in Labrador Retriever, PLL in Mini-Bull Terrier, EF and DE/CC in Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, PRA rcd-4 in Gordon, and Irish Setter, and spinocerebellar ataxia in Parson Russell Terrier. Within the UK at least, this represents a spectrum of large and small breeds, and generally "known" diseases within the breeds. 2019 Lewis TW, Mellersh CS. Changes in mutation frequency of eight Mendelian inherited disorders in eight pedigree dog populations following introduction of a commercial DNA test. Plos One, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0209864 See also: Nearly 20 Years of DNA Testing – What Can We Learn? : IPFD CEO's blog post with discussion of wider implications of the study's approach and findings; based on Ian Seath's commentary (Dog-ED: Social Enterprise) with a breeder/health council perspective on the article above. IPFD Harmonization of Genetic Testing (HGTD) and search on the mentioned diseases for more information on the the condition, phenes, tests and more.
  24. Ian Seath, a great friend and collaborator of IPFD has provided a clearly and thoughtfully profiled an article from our Partners at The Kennel Club in the UK in his post: NEARLY 20 YEARS OF DNA TESTING – WHAT CAN WE LEARN? Ian does a great job of summarizing and highlighting the material in this important paper and I will let you read his coverage, and, as he suggests, the original paper: "I don’t want to dwell on the detail of the research; you can read that for yourself, here: https://goo.gl/PiQmMF – I want to discuss how and why this paper might be important. The study covers the results of 8 DNA tests in 8 breeds for the period 2000 to 2017. 2 of the DNA tests applied to 2 breeds, resulting in 10 test+breed combinations. The key metric used to measure progress was the Mutation Frequency ...". In essence, for these tests in these breeds, the authors, Tom Lewis and Cathryn Mellersh, respected geneticists, go beyond the findings in specific dogs to calculate a broader impact on inheritance. The paper shows the tremendous potential for validated tests, used appropriately to positively impact the health of breeds. Ian's suggestions on how The KC could take these findings further by considering how to incorporate in registration and breeding strategies are on point. In his section on "Wider Implications?" Ian also highlights some of the cautions that must also be taken into consideration, and further, says: "There are over 700 inherited disorders and traits in dogs, of which around 300 have a genetically simple mode of inheritance and around 150 available DNA tests. This tells us that we should not rely on DNA testing to solve the “problem” of diseases in pedigree dogs." Building on this, and without detracting in any way from the research, its impact or Ian's excellent discussion, I want to stress further caution. Accepting that this is strong evidence that "DNA testing works!" we must be clear that this has been shown for these tests in these breeds and our enthusiasm must not expand to include all genetic testing, across the board, as being proven as impactful by this study. These are primarily simply inherited, very specific, well-characterized, but relatively rare conditions with well-validated tests. Certainly we are optimistic that there are now, and will be more, test-by-breed-by-condition combinations that will also support health strategies and breeding decisions. But it is extremely important to remember that only a small proportion of the conditions affecting dogs will fall into this category, even a small proportion of those for which genetic tests are or will be available. In terms of perspective, the IPFD Harmonization of Genetic Testing in Dogs (HGTD) database lists over 250 genetic tests marketed to over 400 breeds/varieties. So I echo Ian's recommendations that even as we take this as good news, we: look to researchers and breed advisors to continue their work to not only identify potentially useful tests but also to monitor them as they are used to determine their impact we continue to educate consumers and breeders on the complexities of genetic testing, as well as, the realistic benefits and limitations of genetic tests and testing and we promote and support balanced, 'Big Picture' development of breed-health strategies that consider not only genetic testing but all other available tools to help define the health and disease picture within breeds as well. The IPFD HGTD is in place to support genetic counselling; and the Expert Panel development to provide informed advice and the Health Strategies Database for Dogs including an interactive resource supporting that Big Picture view are coming soon to help all stakeholders do their best for dogs and their owners as we navigate the complexities of dog health and welfare. Kudos again to Drs. Lewis and Mellersh, and The KC for stellar work and to Ian Seath for his insightful commentary. This is progress – over 20 years. One can be optimistic that there will be many more advances in the next 20 years if we focus on both the details and the broad perspective. See also: New Research blog on the same article.
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