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  2. Dear Aimee, Do you know if the JADD in NSDTR is simple mendelian or complex? UC Davies genetics lab is offering a test. Do you know if it is a reliable test? Do you think the test should be mandatory for NSDTR used for breeding given its early age of onset and serious impact on an affected dog's health and welfare? I would be very grateful for your comments. Kind Regards, Anon UK NSDTR Breeder Dear NSDTR Breeder, It is my understanding that the JADD (Juvenile Addison's Disease) genetic test that is available is a simple inheritance (autosomal recessive) and based on the published discovery research, it seems likely at this time that this test for the NSDTR has a 75% penetrance. According to the researchers, this means that the dog that is tested as genetically affected for JADD has a 75% risk of going on to develop the clinical signs of the disease. This is sometimes referred to autosomal-recessive, with incomplete penetrance. They don't know why 25% of genetically affected dogs don't get the disease, and they don't know for sure that this mutation is the only one associated with developing the disease. We don't yet know how "common" this disease or the risk is. This makes it difficult to know how important it is as a disease to test for. It may be worth you contacting the UK NSDTR Breed Club, as they appear to be aware of the disease, but also seem to only have noted 1 reported case in the UK. (you can find links to their club website, including health pages below) It is very possible for a disease to be more or less common in different countries. As for UC Davis, I believe they worked closely with the research team (who is also based at UC Davis) to develop the test, so while it isn't to say that other test providers aren't also doing a good job, it is a general good idea to have the test performed by the team who discovered it, or who worked closely/collaborated, as they should be familiar with any technical challenges. They are also, I believe still working with breeders in furthering research for this disease, so they may be hoping to have a better idea of prevalence in the future, and perhaps addressing that unknown 25% aspect. (see reference below) As for it being a mandatory test for breeding, I guess you mean the Kennel Club registered dogs? It is hard to know. I believe the test can have value, and that the researchers are providing most of the information needed to help with breeding decisions, but it is not as black and white as a classic autosomal recessive disease, with 100% penetrance. In an ideal world, a club might organize (or researchers might somehow support/collaborate) to test dogs randomly across the population, and get some idea of how common the mutation is. This would help them determine how to prioritize testing for this disease. If pushed, I'd probably personally test for JADD, based on the potential welfare impact, and for contributing to further research. But, not at the expense of not doing hip scoring, or tests for the more common eye conditions. I hope that helps! Take-away Points: New genetic mutations are being discovered all the time. It is important to consider why you are considering genetic testing, and to prioritize what is important for your dog’s welfare, and consider what is best for the breed/population as a whole. When a test isn’t a straightforward “simple” inheritance, it may mean that you don’t have the full-picture of the disease and its inheritance. It can still be beneficial to test – you’ll get some information about your dog, you might want to incorporate it into breeding plans, and you’ll probably be contributing to the research – especially if you are engaging with the original test developers/researchers. But, these tests will not provide any yes or no answers. If the inheritance is complex, or the test is still essentially in a research phase, you shouldn’t necessarily prioritize a new test over the conditions and concerns that are established in your breed. If you have limited resources, focusing on established DNA tests for common diseases in your breed, any clinical screening such as hips/elbows/eyes/hearts/etc., and breeding for soundness and behavior should be your first priorities. References/Further reading and resources: TWO NEW DNA BASED TESTS AVAILABLE FOR THE NSDTR Written by Danika Bannasch DVM PhD; Professor Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis Published Spring 2012 Issue-Quacker. http://nsdtrc-usa.org/pdf_files/2012/Quakers-JADD-CP1-0512.pdf UK-Based Breed Club, with Health resources: www.toller-club.co.uk
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  4. IPFD friend and collaborator Dr. Jerold Bell, Adjunct Professor Tufts University, and Chair of the Hereditary Disease Committee of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association, has recently circulated a letter about DM testing in French Bulldogs (attached below). According to his research and communication with international neurologists there has never been a confirmed case of DM in this breed, and yet the test is recommended in several countries. French Bulldogs do have spinal problems, but these are generally due to widespread prevalence of vetebral abnormalities and not DM. Testing - and then perhaps eliminating dogs from the breeding stock based on test results - is not a beneficial strategy for the population. Part of the problem of wrongly recommended tests may related to the unfortunate use of language for some genetic tests. Results of allele frequencies may be reported as 'clear', 'carrier', or 'affected'. In fact, 'affected' in this case means 'genetically affected' and may or may not relate to clinical disease, as in the case of DM in French Bulldogs, at least as far as we know. Discussions like these are crucially needed as part of better genetic counselling. See further discussion on this issue in my talk to the American Veterinary Medical Association. Here is the letter from Dr. Bell: Degenerative Myelopathy Does NOT Occur in French Bulldogs.pdf
  5. As many of you may know, there has been a lot of focus of health and welfare issues in brachycephalics and in the spring information about Pugs in the Netherlands. The situation of government regulations on dog breeding is a complex one, and without appropriate inclusion of all relevant stakeholders, we cannot be sure that the best interests of dogs will be served. Our partners the Dutch Kennel Club have been working intensely with various groups and have come out with their thoughtful and evidence-based recommendations in the attached breeding strategy document. Thanks to veterinarian Laura Roest for sending us this communication. Dear reader, Enclosed you find the translated proposal the Dutch Kennel Club ‘Raad van Beheer’ has sent to the Dutch Government. This is not a certified translation, but gives us the opportunity to inform the international community. Please feel free to ask questions regarding the document. In March 2019, the report “BREEDING BRACHYCEPHALIC DOGS*" was published in The Netherlands (in Dutch) with enforcement criteria for the breeding of brachycephalic dogs. These criteria were active from that day onwards. The Raad van Beheer concurs with almost all criteria and wishes to adapt them in its own regulations, in close collaboration with the involved breed clubs. The Raad van Beheer does not agree with the Craniofacial Ratio (CFR) as a prohibiting criterion for breeding. This criterion would make it impossible to breed certain breeds while the prognostic value and the reproducibility of the CFR are being questioned among scientists. The Raad van Beheer wants an exception for the regulated pedigree breeding, so these breeds can be bred in The Netherlands in a healthy form and with the effort to achieve a longer muzzle. We hope to receive soon a positive reaction on our proposal from our Government and we will keep the International Dog World posted! Kind regards, Laura Roest, DVM and Gabri Kolster Board Member Raad van Beheer Breeding Commission Dutch Kennel Club ‘Raad van Beheer’ Translated version: English... Breeding strategy brachycephalic dogs in the Netherlands.pdf Also see: background articles/resources: Stricter rules for breeding brachy dogs https://dogzine.eu/en/newsarticle/stricter-rules-breeding-brachy-dogs *FOKKEN MET KORTSNUITIGE HONDEN (Dutch) Fokken_met_kortsnuitige_honden_.pdf
  6. I had the honour to be invited to give a talk at the annual American Veterinary Medical Association conference in Washington, DC on 04 August 2019. I was asked to speak on the One Health aspects of genetic testing. Many of you will have heard of One Health. The human medical establishment started to coin this phrase in the early 2000's to indicate an approach to health that considered humans, animals an the environment. As a veterinarian and an epidemiologist I can tell you that we had that figured out a long time before, but as it was also put forward by Hippocrates, I don't suppose we will worry about who came first! For more info see this article by One Health Sweden... and their image. I specify how genetic testing fits under that umbrella. It actually is a bit of a no-brainer isn't it? Everything we do with dogs is tied up with people and so many conditions of concern are affected by where and how we live, in the broadest sense. When we talk about genetic testing, both from the science to the commercialization and application there are so many points of intersection between the human and pet world. As you will see in my talk, attached below, the impacts can't be ignored if we are to successfully navigate the world of genetic testing. For us and for our pets! Although many of the issues raised are a cause for concern and increase our awareness of significant challenges, we should always keep in mind that there are a host of potential and even remarkable benefits to be realized from genetic testing. However, with Direct-To-Consumer marketing, the popularization of genetic testing, and the many challenges raised on the spectrum from discovery to application we all need the information and tools to make the best decisions. These issues were also raised, discussed at the 4th IDHW and working groups are moving ahead to address them. IPFD has the Harmonization of Genetic Testing already available and we are working on further developments like the Expert Panel and the Health Strategies Database for Dogs, as well as breed specific tools to help owners, breeders, advisors, researchers, veterinarians - really all stakeholders in the crazy-wonderful world of genetic and genomic testing. [[link to Aimee's article]] Warning - the complexities of genetic testing are not going to go away in the near future! Let's continue to work together for the health, well-being and welfare of our animal companions and the humans who wouldn't want to live without them. One Health! BONNETT - Genetic Testing The Big Picture_AVMA talk August 2019.pdf
  7. This report is to be viewed as a dynamic document summarizing the pre-thru-post 4th IDHW meeting activities around the Genetic Testing theme. Please note that additions and changes may occur. We will be welcoming comments and suggestions from participants in the workshop and working groups as we move forward. Please contact Aimee at aimee.llewellyn-zaidi@ipfdogs.com.
  8. Hi Jan, I've forwarded your comment to Aimee Llewellyn... If the test is newly offered by the lab, like you say, it may not be posted yet. Thanks for the info. 😉
  9. I think that AnimalGenetics now offers rests for IVDD but do not find it on list of provides. https://www.animalgenetics.us/Canine/Genetic_Disease/IVDD.asp it may just be too recent to have been added.
  10. Assessment of welfare and brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome signs in young, breeding age French Bulldogs and Pugs, using owner questionnaire, physical examination and walk tests Authors: Aromaa, M; Lilja-Maula, L; Rajamäki, MM Source: Animal Welfare, Volume 28, Number 3, August 2019, pp. 287-298(12) Publisher: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare DOI: https://doi.org/10.7120/09627286.28.3.287 https://www.ingentaconnect.com/contentone/ufaw/aw/2019/00000028/00000003/art00005# (Internal) Assessment of welfare and brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome signs in young, breeding age French Bulldogs and Pugs, using owner questionnaire, physical examination and walk tests.pdf Study based on Finnish data... Publication date: August 1, 2019 BOAS signs limit the daily activities of dogs - walk tests performance appears to be a more accurate reflection of tested dog's exercise tolerance than owner's perceptions. Excerpts... "Only four out of 95 French Bulldog and Pug owners reported that the BOAS signs limited the daily activities of their dogs. However, according to the physical, examination-based veterinary BOAS grading, 31/95 of the dogs had moderate to severe BOAS signs. In both breeds, the more severely affected dogs performed both exercise tests more poorly than those with no or mild BOAS signs. The longer exercise, namely the 1,000-m test, seemed slightly better able at differentiating between affected dogs and less affected ones. The results of this study further support the use of exercise tests as an important part of the breeding selection in French Bulldogs and Pugs. By influencing the breed standards set by Kennel Clubs and by using breeding selection tools, the harmful impacts of brachycephaly can be diminished." "By combining information from the physical BOAS assessment, namely the functional BOAS scale, nostril stenosis and exercise capacity, the breeder has the opportunity to make responsible breeding decisions related to BOAS."
  11. Several IPFD collaborators are speaking at the AVMA conference this weekend! Thanks to IPFD collaborator, Dr. Jason Stull, there are sessions focusing on Canine Genetics in the Dr. James H. Steele One Health stream, including: Angela Hughes DVM, PhD from Wisdom Health is presenting Utilizing Genetic Panel Testing in Dogs for Breed and Disease and IPFD CEO Brenda Bonnett, DVM, PhD who is talking about Genetic Testing to Improve Canine Health: The Big Picture and why this truly needs to be considered from the One Health approach. Hint: We care about the dogs, but it is people who complicate everything!! In addition, Theme Leader at the 3rd International Dog Health Workshop in Paris, Jason Stull VMD, MPVM, PhD, DACVPM, is giving a series of talks on infectious disease concerns in veterinary practices, including, e.g. The Dummies' Guide to Preventing Hospital-Associated Infections. Harmonization of Genetic Testing for Dogs (HGTD) collaborator, Kari Ekenstedt DVM, PhD, is delivering a whole afternoon of talks on clinical genetics, including Practical Applications of Genetic Testing in Dogs and Cats. Hope to see vets and vet techs that are keen to expand their practical knowledge about dogs and genetics...
  12. Headquartered in Denver, Colorado, Morris Animal Foundation is the largest nonprofit foundation in the world dedicated to funding studies to improve and protect the health of companion animals and wildlife. Since its establishment in 1948, the Foundation has invested $126 million toward more than 2,600 studies that have led to significant breakthroughs in disease, toxic exposures and injury diagnostics, treatments and preventions to benefit animals worldwide.
  13. Thanks to our co-hosts, The Kennel Club, the 4th International Dog Health Workshop was a great success. The consensus seems to be that the IDHWs just keep getting better and better. This is due in great part to the efforts of the attendees - decision leaders from 18 countries, representing all stakeholders in dog health and welfare - including representatives from research, the veterinary world, welfare organizations, kennel and breed organizations, and more. Stellar plenary speakers set the tone for intense and productive breakout sessions in the various themes. The themes were: Genetics, Breed-Specific Breeding Strategies, The Concept of Breed and its Impact on Health, Supply and Demand, and Extremes of Conformation. Below you will find links to fantastic pre- and post-workshop materials. Be sure to check in to DogWellNet.com and follow us on Facebook and Twitter for important updates from the several working groups who are already moving ahead with needed actions. As seen in the word cloud from our participants, a key aspect of this meeting is collaboration and networking. Coming together with others who are dealing with similar challenges and who share a commitment to health dogs provides a boost of energy for both cooperative efforts as well as the day to day work by these committed dog people. Below you will also see reports and write ups about the 4th IDHW, and there will be more as the work continues. Thanks to all who attended, and we will keep you informed on developing plans for the 5th IDHW in 2021. 4th IDHW Pre- and Post-Meeting Resources From pre-meeting reading material to posters and slide presentations from the workshop, we've compiled materials from the 4th IDHW, so that participants can refer back to them - and so that those who were unable to attend can also benefit from this impressive collection of downloadable resources. Pre-Meeting Resources | Post Meeting Resources Articles on the 4th IDHW Vet Record News: 4th IDHW workshop - "Improving the health of pedigree dogs" Lance Novak, Executive Director, Canadian Kennel Club: From My Side of the Desk: Canine Health and Wellness Several articles by Ian J. Seath of the Dachshund Breed Council (DBC): My report on the 4th International Dog Health Workshop for Our Dogs My presentation to the 4th International Dog Health Workshop (IDHW4) Breed Health Strategies – Addressing the challenges: My July 2019 “Best of Health” article The why and how of Breed-specific Health Strategies – “Best of Health” June 2019 Aimee Llewellyn-Zaidi's Report from the Genetic Testing Theme, from the 4th International Dog Health Workshop Canine Genetics and Epidemiology Journal. As following the 3rd IDHW, we are compiling a report on the 4th that will be review and published by our collaborating partners at CGE. If you haven't seen the previous article, check it out here. Global Pet Obesity Initiative After an overwhelming show of support by attendees of the 4th IDHW, IPFD has confirmed its support of the Global Pet Obesity Initiative Position Statement (launched by The Association for Pet Obesity Prevention (APOP)) calling for the veterinary profession to adopt uniform nomenclature for canine and feline obesity. IPFD is currently in discussions with APOP to look at ways to collaborate on the important issue of canine obesity.
  14. Many of our colleagues, collaborators, members and readers have a special interest in their own breed(s) and on DogWellNet.com we try to provide extensive breed-specific content. However, a key underlying tenet of IPFD and our platforms is that there is great deal of information and experience that is relevant across breeds, across activities and across regions. Therefore our emphasis on sharing. Thanks to Barbara Thiel who recently shared a presentation on Actual challenges in breeding show type Greyhounds by Dr. med. vet. Barbara Kessler, scientist at the Chair for Molecular Animal Breeding and Biotechnology Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich. Notwithstanding the title and the information on some Greyhound-specific diseases, much of this talk is about challenges of selection, inbreeding, and impact on diversity that applies to all breeds. Barbara Kessler has makes some strong statements based on her academic and personal experience. She lists, e.g. some autoimmune diseases associated with reduced genetic (sic) variability, including allergies, diabetes, and hypothyroidism - conditions seen, perhaps increasingly in some other breeds. There are great graphics provided by veterinarian Barbara Thiel highlighting the breeding separation of Greyhounds based on their activities. And Barbara Kessler contrasts the breeding approaches of 50 years ago to more recently. Some of the challenges they highlight exemplify discussions at the 4th International Dog Health Workshop on 'The Concept of Breeds and its Impact on Health'. This recalls to mind a discussion I observed at an international meeting of Springer Spaniel Clubs at the time of the World Dog Show in Sweden in 2008. There were passionate and conflicting claims that the breed was first and foremost a working/hunting breed or now a show breed; long time breeders and experts were adamant that it was a breed with strong working capabilities that was also beautiful - just as it was (i.e. without a long, silky coat or other adaptations to the show ring). I do not want to imply that any one approach is the only or right one. However, I can concur strongly with one of Kessler's messages, specifically that people who are applying strong selection, breeding rapidly and intensely for specific appearances, need to be very aware of the larger and longer-term consequences of that approach. These issues are fraught with emotion, attachment to certain ideals, and even well-established human behaviours. Many accuse anyone of providing this type of information as being anti-dog shows or anti-purebred dogs. However, in many cases those who are calling for awareness, change and addressing challenges head on are themselves passionate about these breeds and fully committed to their preservation, health and welfare. The talk goes on to an interesting and thought-provoking section on genetic diversity and I hope our working group on this topic from the 4th IDHW will find it useful. As stated in this box... we depend on breeders to 'keep their 'eye on the whole dog' ... but then it must be that - and not getting swayed into too much focus on appearance, extremes, the latest fashion. or what judges are awarding Let's keep the lines of communication open. It seems that many are taking increasingly extreme and opposing views on challenges in dog breeding and the world of pedigree dogs. Perhaps this stems from sincere and increasing concerns... whether it is veterinarians and researchers who are more worried about the health and welfare of the dogs ... or breeders and exhibitors and judges feeling that their pastimes, culture and even livelihoods are under attack. But regardless, confrontation is not likely to be best for the dogs or their humans. Thoughtful awareness of the impact of our actions; compassion more than judgement: and a willingness to listen are all good to consider. And let's keep sharing the wonderful material and resources from around the world. Original link: http://katrin-und-joachim.de/2019/07/24/actual-challenges-in-breeding-show-type-greyhounds/ "On occasion of the Finnish Greyhound Club Show, Dr Barbara Kessler was invited to talk about Greyhound health"... The Greyhound Show website: http://katrin-und-joachim.de Also see: DWN's Greyhound page
  15. Thanks to VDH (the German Kennel Club) and our friend and collaborator, veterinarian Barbara Thiel, please see attached press release about their latest efforts to support brachycephalic health and welfare. They state that their goal is to identify "the most resilient dogs among the pug population in order to establish the healthiest possible pool of dogs for breeding". Pug fitness test Germany 2019.pdf The new effort in German exemplifies several important approaches: It has been developed collaboratively across various stakeholder groups including the VDH, academics, and veterinary organizations. The test is "available not only to dogs bred under VDH supervision, but to all pugs". The test is done under controlled, standardized and well-supervised conditions. And fantastically, it is being offered for free for two years courtesy of the German Society for the Support of Canine Research (GFK) . Congatulations to VDH and its partners for this excellent program and thanks for sharing the information with us. Great to see collaboration focused on dog well-being making a difference. Links at VDH (in German) Neuer Fitnesstest für Möpse GKF Flyer 2019 We have descriptions of fitness tests from other countries on DogWellNet.com, see for example: Sweden: Swedish Kennel Club: Making assessments of dogs' respiration - BSI (Video Link) https://dogwellnet.com/media/media/5-making-assessments-of-dogs-respiration-bsi/ Bullies, Pugs and Bulldogs – the current top runners Germany: IKFB: (Includes Video Link) https://dogwellnet.com/content/health-and-breeding/breed-specific-programs/breed-specific-breeding-strategies/breed-specific-programs-country/bullies-pugs-and-bulldogs-–-the-current-top-runners-r232/ Finnish walk test for brachycephalic breeds ready https://dogwellnet.com/blogs/entry/88-finnish-walk-test-for-brachycephalic-breeds-ready Scheme launched to improve health of French Bulldogs, Pugs and Bulldogs - The Kennel Club | Cambridge https://dogwellnet.com/content/hot-topics/brachycephalics/scheme-launched-to-improve-health-of-french-bulldogs-pugs-and-bulldogs-the-kennel-club-cambridge-r636/
  16. A presentation by Chris Laurence MBE to the 2013 AWF Discussion Forum. Part of a session exploring what happened next to issues discussed at the Forum from 2006 - 2012. This video offers a historical perspective of animal welfare issues in the UK. A complete group of AWF/BVA videos in the Discussion Forum is at: https://www.youtube.com/user/BVAAWF/videos The videos cover many species; dog's/companion animal's welfare concerns are included in some of the talks. Also see AWF's website: https://www.animalwelfarefoundation.org.uk/
  17. 29 June 2019 |VET RECORD - Volume 184, Issue 26 Improving the health of pedigree dogs By Suzanne Jarvis "A RANGE of actions are needed to improve the health of pedigree dogs, and multiple stakeholders must be engaged for progress to be made.That was the outcome from the fourth International Dog Health Workshop (IDHW), held earlier this month and hosted by the International Partnership for Dogs (IPFD) and The Kennel Club in the UK."
  18. The reality of sourcing – national vs. registered/ pedigree populations; commercial breeding: the reality; new developments in health and welfare management, e.g. in the USA and Ireland; ‘rescues’ / marketing; the role of different stakeholders.
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    USA BMD StatisticsRegistrations and Health by Pat Long, May 2019 This file contains statistics for Bernese Mountain Dogs tested for vWD, DM and Antegene's Histio PreTest. Also see the xls... AKC BMD registrations statistics 1937-current.xlsx
  20. See Downloads - 4th IDHW Theme Outcomes Presentations (below) Article: Report from the Genetic Testing Theme, from the 4th International Dog Health Workshop (8-5-2019) This article summarizes the pre-thru-post 4th IDHW meeting activities around the Genetic Testing theme. Please note that additions and changes may occur. We will be welcoming comments and suggestions from participants in the workshop and working groups as we move forward. Please contact Aimee at aimee.llewellyn-zaidi@ipfdogs.com.
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    excerpts... Main Areas of Concern Definitions and Clarifications, “Sustainable supply of dogs” Dog Traceability –Numbers and Origins Social Media / Online Presence Legislation Key Actions... “Human Behaviour Change”
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    This overview offers discussion on definitions of "Breed"... excerpts... Pros and cons of the definitions we use today. Is it possible to have closed studbooks forever? Genetic diversity – why is that important? Benefits/risks/need to include the expanding population of ‘consumer-defined’ crosses in discussions and education? Two different scenarios Cross breeding projects Open studbooks
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    Action plans for management of extremes in dog breeds... BOAS, brachycephalics, genetic testing, breed standards, involving stakeholders, and obesity topics are discussed.
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    Excerpt... Our key activities Confirming what we mean by a breed health strategy, by reference to currently available examples Defining Health Strategy Providers and understanding the landscape of those providing direction, challenge and regulation (e.ggovernments, KCs, campaigners, breed clubs, vets) Understanding the challenges facing breed clubs, such as how to get started with a breed strategy, how to maintain momentum and how to accelerate progress The role of Kennel Clubs in the wider context (national and international), such as advocating for breeds, influencing legislation and providing resources for clubs and breeders Identifying and sharing currently available resources and tools to address these issues Identifying gaps in current capabilities (approaches, resources, tools) and how these might be addressed Viewing a demonstration of the IPFD’s new Health Strategies Database
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