Ann Milligan

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About Ann Milligan

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  1. A representative study of Danish owners of four small dog breeds P. Sandøe, S. V. Kondrup1, P. C. Bennett, B. Forkman, I Meyer, H. F. Proschowsky,J. A. Serpell, T. B. Lund This newly published peer-reviewed research is available in DWN Downloads. external link: doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0172091.t001 "An array of previous studies thus indicates that both physical and behavioral attributes of dogs may have an impact on how attractive a specific breed or breed characteristic is perceived to be. However, as far as we are aware, no previous study has investigated the motivational patterns behind peoples' choices between dog breeds, or how these relate to the quality of the relationship between owners and dogs of specific breeds. To address this issue, we surveyed a representative sample of owners of four different breeds of dogs (two with extreme phenotypes, one with a high load of inherited diseases and one relatively healthy) with the overall goal of examining their motivations for acquiring their dog, the health and behavior problems encountered, and the quality of relationships between the dog owners and their dogs."
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    A representative study of Danish owners of four small dog breeds P. Sandøe, S. V. Kondrup1, P. C. Bennett, B. Forkman, I Meyer, H. F. Proschowsky,J. A. Serpell, T. B. Lund PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0172091 February 24, 2017 Breeds in this study include: Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, French Bulldog, Chihuahua and Cairn Terrier. Abstract "A number of dog breeds suffer from welfare problems due to extreme phenotypes and high levels of inherited diseases but the popularity of such breeds is not declining. Using a survey of owners of two popular breeds with extreme physical features (French Bulldog and Chihuahua), one with a high load of inherited diseases not directly related to conformation (Cavalier King Charles Spaniel), and one representing the same size range but without extreme conformation and with the same level of disease as the overall dog population (Cairn Terrier), we investigated this seeming paradox. We examined planning and motivational factors behind acquisition of the dogs, and whether levels of experienced health and behavior problems were associated with the quality of the owner-dog relationship and the intention to reprocure a dog of the same breed. Owners of each of the four breeds (750/breed) were randomly drawn from a nationwide Danish dog registry and invited to participate. Of these, 911 responded, giving a final sample of 846. There were clear differences between owners of the four breeds with respect to degree of planning prior to purchase, with owners of Chihuahuas exhibiting less. Motivations behind choice of dog were also different. Health and other breed attributes were more important to owners of Cairn Terriers, whereas the dog's personality was reported to be more important for owners of French Bulldogs and Cavalier King Charles Spaniels but less important for Chihuahua owners. Higher levels of health and behavior problems were positively associated with a closer owner-dog relationship for owners of Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and Chihuahuas but, for owners of French Bulldogs, high levels of problems were negatively associated with an intention to procure the same breed again. In light of these findings, it appears less paradoxical that people continue to buy dogs with welfare problems." The "study aimed to answer the following questions: 1) Do motivations for acquiring a dog, and pre-purchase owner characteristics, differ between owners of the four breeds? 2) Do levels of expenditure on veterinary treatments and health and behavior problems experienced differ for owners of the four dog breeds? 3) Do motivations prior to acquisition, and owners' experiences of health and behavior problems with their dogs, explain differences in the quality of the owner-dog relationship between the four breeds? 4) Do intentions of acquiring the same breed the next time a dog is to be procured change as a function of experienced health and behavior problems?"
  3. See the learning Module at: http://aast.cfsph.iastate.edu/AWIC/index.htm Center for Food Security and Public Health © 2012–2016 Iowa State University
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    Thanks to the SKK, the SSF and Kerstin Olofsson for the English Translation! ENG_Norrbottenspets_edit.doc
  5. Information available from various sources quantifies the numbers of dogs and helps to determine prevalence of disease.
  6. Breeding for Behavior | Mentality | Instinct This section focuses on the inheritance of traits/predispositions and their integration with broader issues of dog health. IPFD and DogWellNet hope to develop this topic with the help of Experts - from all areas of the dog world.
  7. Here we are listing a few DWN resources that cover the relationship of dog health and welfare issues as they relate to phenotype.
  8. Many thanks to the AKC-CHF and our other sponsors for supporting the collaborative Harmonization of Genetic Testing initiative!!! See the Dog News Annual Issue for the complete article.
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    This breed has information on veterinary care events (VC) insurance data. Files Available for Download: SALUKIS VC 2006-2011.pdf The VC file has rates of most common and highest risk conditions requiring veterinary care. Agria Dog Breed Statistics FAQs.pdf This file addresses frequently asked questions regarding Agria Dog Breed Statistics. Click on the red DOWNLOAD button above to access the files.
  10. I have noticed in a few breed's health surveys that the question of intact or neutered is included. I do not know if the Breed Clubs for DSF in different countries have done health surveys - or if analysis has been done on intact status related to anything else covered in the health surveys. I am aware of research into the increased risk of expression of joint conditions (Neutering Dogs: Effects on Joint Disorders and Cancers in Golden Retrievers: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0055937) and immune mediated issues (Gonadectomy effects on the risk of immune disorders in the dog: a retrospective study: https://bmcvetres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12917-016-0911-5) in dogs that were spayed/neutered early/later in life. I do not know exactly which breeds were studied or how club recommendations for management of dogs are impacted or how breeders/owners/vets specifically handle the spay/neuter question.
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    Whole genome sequence, SNP chips and pedigree structure: Building demographic profiles in domestic dog breeds to optimize genetic trait mapping Authors: Dayna L. Dreger, Maud Rimbault1, Brian W. Davis1, Adrienne Bhatnagar1, Heidi G. Parker, Elaine A. Ostrander Key Words: population, homozygosity, canine, inbreeding SUMMARY STATEMENT "Successful application of whole genome sequencing and genome-wide association studies for identifying both loci and mutations in canines is influenced by breed structure and demography, motivating us to generate breed-specific strategies for canine genetic studies." ABSTRACT "In the decade following publication of the draft genome sequence of the domestic dog, extraordinary advances with application to several fields have been credited to the canine genetic system. Taking advantage of closed breeding populations and the subsequent selection for aesthetic and behavioral characteristics, researchers have leveraged the dog as an effective natural model for the study of complex traits, such as disease susceptibility, behavior, and morphology, generating unique contributions to human health and biology. When designing genetic studies using purebred dogs, it is essential to consider the unique demography of each population, including estimation of effective population size and timing of population bottlenecks. The analytical design approach for genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and analysis of whole genome sequence (WGS) experiments are inextricable from demographic data. We have performed a comprehensive study of genomic homozygosity, using high-depth WGS data for 90 individuals, and Illumina HD SNP data from 800 individuals representing 80 breeds. These data were coupled with extensive pedigree data analyses for 11 breeds that, together, allowed us to compute breed structure, demography, and molecular measures of genome diversity. Our comparative analyses characterize the extent, formation, and implication of breed-specific diversity as it relates to population structure. These data demonstrate the relationship between breed-specific genome dynamics and population architecture, and provide important considerations influencing the technological and cohort design of association and other genomic studies." excerpt... "The work presented here examines variables of inbreeding and homozygosity in a large and comprehensive set of dog breeds through parallel use of pedigree data, genome-wide SNP genotyping, and WGS. Specifically we compare data from extended pedigree analysis, genotyping with a SNP chip of 173,622 potential data points, and WGS with an average depth of 27.79X. We found that each dog breed has a unique profile of genome diversity, varying by amount of total homozygosity as well as number and size of homozygous regions. Likewise, while we observe variation between members of the same breed, multiple individuals from a single breed can be combined to obtain an accurate reflection of breed-specific homozygosity and knowledge regarding fluidity of variation within breed confines. This allows us to define metrics that inform the design of canine genetic studies while also allowing us to develop an understanding of the intricate complexity of the diversity of dog breeds. Individual diversity metrics are provided for over 100 breeds as a resource for investigators in the field."