Ann Milligan

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  1. Version 1.0.0

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    Summary of the Breed-Specific Breeding Program (JTO) Saluki 2014-2018 Finnish Saluki Club http://www.saluki.fi/
  2. UKC's data (rather than or in addition to AKC's) is most assuredly a possibility - I will seek further clarification. AKC's breed specific registration data is available to Parent clubs (which I'm not sure were contacted for the purposes of compiling this SKK report - since the Parent clubs are not the registering body). AKC uses a breed ranking system when they report on registrations #'s - the specific breed registration numbers have not been publicly available/shown on their website or in annual reports for some years to my knowledge. thank you for your comments
  3. Please pardon my hasty reply to your question and allow me to roll back my original response. Looking more closely at the article it appears the US did participate which would mean AKC registration numbers were included - the correction to my statement is based on: Acknowledgements contained in the article (page 3)... "We would like to thank all counties who have kindly shared their data and thus have made this article possible: Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Greece, United Kingdom, France, Finland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Norway, New Zealand, Portugal, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Taiwan, The Netherlands, Ukraine U.S.A.
  4. The data was collected from FCI members.
  5. Some quantitative work already published on dog health - references for attendees at 3rd IDHW: Comparison and challenges for different data sources: O'NEILL, D., CHURCH, D., MCGREEVY, P., THOMSON, P. & BRODBELT, D. 2014. Approaches to canine health surveillance. Canine Genetics and Epidemiology, 1, 2. Approaches to canine health surveillance.pdf Understanding primary-care vet data for research: ROBINSON, N. J., BRENNAN, M. L., COBB, M. & DEAN, R. S. 2014. Capturing the complexity of first opinion small animal consultations using direct observation. Veterinary Record. Capturing the complexity of first opinion small animal consultations.pdf Exploring bias in referral clinical records: BARTLETT, P. C., VAN BUREN, J. W., NETERER, M. & ZHOU, C. 2010. Disease surveillance and referral bias in the veterinary medical database. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 94, 264-271. Disease surveillance and referral bias in the veterinary medical database Bartlett 2010 Prev Vet med.pdf Uses of owner-reported data: ADAMS, V. J., EVANS, K. M., SAMPSON, J. & WOOD, J. L. N. 2010. Methods and mortality results of a health survey of purebred dogs in the UK. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 51, 512-524. Methods and mortality results.pdf Kennel club registrations statistics: THE KENNEL CLUB. 2017. Breed registration statistics [Online]. The Kennel Club Limited. Available: [Accessed January 23 2017]. The use of insurance data: BONNETT, B. N., EGENVALL, A., HEDHAMMAR, Å. & OLSON, P. 2005. Mortality in over 350,000 insured Swedish dogs from 1995-2000: I. breed-, gender-, age- and cause-specific rates. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 46, 105-120. Mortality in over 350,000 Insured Swedish dogs from 1995–2000 I.pdf Comparison of information from literature, referral practice and expert opinion with data from primary practice: KEIJSER, S. F. A., MEIJNDERT, L. E., FIETEN, H., CARRIÈRE, B. J., VAN STEENBEEK, F. G., LEEGWATER, P. A. J., ROTHUIZEN, J. & NIELEN, M. 2017. Disease burden in four populations of dog and cat breeds compared to mixed-breed dogs and European shorthair cats. Preventive Veterinary Medicine Disease burden in four populations of dog and cat breeds.pdf Quantitative data requirements for welfare impact assessment: COLLINS, L. M., ASHER, L., SUMMERS, J. F., DIESEL, G. & MCGREEVY, P. D. 2010. Welfare epidemiology as a tool to assess the welfare impact of inherited defects on the pedigree dog population. Animal Welfare, 19, 67-75. Welfare epidemiology as a tool to assess the welfare impact of inherited defects on the pedigree dog population Collins 2010 Animal Welfare.pdf .
  6. Early out walks excerpt... Early out walks Veterinary behaviorists are "FOR" and tell you why The owner who is considering or has just acquired a puppy wishes to put all the chances on his side to ensure good health. In this area, the veterinarian is his best interlocutor. It is also crucial that the puppy becomes an pleasant adult, non-aggressive and able to adapt to family living conditions. For this the owner takes advice, sometimes before the acquisition, from the veterinarian who will follow his dog for several years. The veterinarian must be able to position himself and be able to give good advices for the animal welfare and its integration into society as early as possible.
  7. IPFD's Breed-Specific Collaborator Australian Shepherd Health & Genetics Institute's C.A. Sharpe covers the topic of Genetic Counseling in Genetic Counseling A Discipline in Gestation. Stressing the 'challenge faced by canine genetic counselors is the vast array of breeds, each representing a distinct population'. The article offers a thoughtful discussion of the need for and means by which 'genetic counseling' occurs today in purebred dog communities.
  8. Creating Health Plans that work... "Using the GISID data together with our knowledge of the prevalence of conditions in Dachshunds we can refine our Health Plan priorities."
  9. Breeding dogs that exhibit symptoms identified as creating 'agony' is addressed by governments of some country's animal welfare laws. In Austria the legislators responsible for creating language in their country's Animal Welfare Act assume that characteristics required in the breed standards can lead to these 'agony' symptoms and now calls for organized cynology to take counter-measures. The Austrian Kennel Club ( Österreichische Kynologenverband - ÖKV ) initiated a project, "Konterqual" to address these concerns. All breeds have been under review for some years as the project has developed with the goal of identifying key areas of breed-specific health issues and pursuit of viable solutions to evaluate and improve breed's health. Here we present translated documentation on the processes by which the Austrian Kennel Club is addressing health and welfare issues in ÖKV registered purebred dogs. We at DWN commend the Austrian Kennel Club for their outstanding work for purebred dog health and welfare. Sharing work like this can help to inform other kennel clubs and countries dealing with similar issues. In addition to presenting the facts and outcomes, it is so helpful to be able to see the process, to follow what steps were taken. Personal experiences, what works, what doesn't ... all these help others. We look forward to further information from Austria on developments and outcomes of this program.
  10. http://amrls.cvm.msu.edu/ These open-source teaching modules are designed for integration into existing veterinary school courses regarding: Pharmacology, Microbiology, Public Health, and Species-specific medicine. Other interested visitors to the site include researchers, microbiologists, epidemiologists and animal scientists. PDF of the Module "Veterinary Public Health And Antimicrobial Resistance" http://amrls.cvm.msu.edu/tools/module-pdf-files/vet-public-health/at_download/file
  11. "It is recognised that, as in society at large, there are different attitudes towards different animal uses amongst veterinary professionals. It will be necessary to build consensus based on effective consultation and democratic decision-making, utilising a shared working definition of animal welfare and widespread recognition of the veterinary profession as an animal welfare-focused profession. This strategy lays out these principles, developed through consultation."
  12. " Dog breeds that were most highly participatory in a voluntary United States radiographic screening process for hips and elbows were evaluated for improvement, whether maternal or paternal selection was more responsible for any observed progress, whether some breeds prove more amenable to selection than others, and whether selection against one orthopedic disorder yielded concomitant improvement in the other." See: Long-term genetic selection reduced prevalence of hip and elbow dysplasia in 60 dog breeds. The study is a good example of how data/numbers can be used to improve understanding of and illustrate progress towards improvement in problematic health conditions. However the voluntary nature of the screening process itself coupled with non-compulsory submissions to OFA post the actual procedural evaluation done at a veterinarian's practice brings to mind a few questions... How is the data available used and by whom? i.e. is the information used by kennel or breed clubs in health/welfare policy decision-making (Codes of Ethics, creating breeding requirements or recommendations, creating educational materials); does research like this piece validate the need for clubs to support funding for further health research or for conducting health surveys; is data accessed by breeders in or outside of clubs to guide decisions regarding suitable/unsuitable breeding prospects; are breed-specific numbers used by veterinarians in practice/diagnosis or in providing advice to clients; does data collected on breeds provide accessible information for the general public searching for a family companion? Discussion involving 'Show Me The Numbers' will take place in Paris at the 3rd International Dog Health Workshop. We hope to present more content from experts on this topic after the Workshop event. Check out the Speakers...
  13. Elsewhere on DogWellNet.com we have other articles describing international programs for hip dysplasia and evidence that these programs are having a beneficial effect. Katariina Mäki from the Finnish Kennel Club has posted information about improvelments in that country in Finnish dog breed populations improving their health - hip dysplasia and Frequency of canine hip and elbow dysplasia decreasing in Finland. Links to international screening protocols are listed here. A research study entitled Long-term genetic selection reduced prevalence of hip and elbow dysplasia in 60 dog breeds was published on Feb 24, 2017 using data from the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (one of our IPFD Partners). This is a welcome addition to the literature. As the authors indicate below, the OFA data represent a non-compulsory listing, as all information is provided voluntarily by dog owners. Some studies from, e.g. Finland, represent a complete population of registered dogs. There are benefits and challenges in any approach to data collection and analysis. One theme at the 3rd International Dog Health Workshop in Paris in April 2017 will focus on the potential and challenges in using various data sources to inform health strategies for dogs. Links to research paper ... DWN Downloads External http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0172918 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0172918&type=printable (PDF) A. M. Oberbauer1*, G. G. Keller2, T. R. Famula1 1 Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA United States of America, 2 Orthopedic Foundation for Animals, Columbia, MO United States of America "Abstract Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) and elbow dysplasia (ED) impact the health and welfare of all dogs". ... "The present study evaluated the efficacy of employing phenotypic selection on breed improvement of hips and elbows using the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals complete database spanning the 1970–2015 time period. Sixty breeds having more than 1000 unique hip evaluations and 500 elbow evaluations (1,056,852 and 275,129 hip and elbow records, respectively) were interrogated to derive phenotypic improvement, sex and age at time of assessment effects, correlation between the two joints, heritability estimates, estimated breeding values (EBV), and effectiveness of maternal/paternal selection. The data demonstrated that there has been overall improvement in hip and elbow conformation with a reduction in EBV for disease liability, although the breeds differed in the magnitude of the response to selection. Heritabilities also differed substantially across the breeds as did the correlation of the joints; in the absence of a universal association of these differences with breed size, popularity, or participation in screening, it appears that the breeds themselves vary in genetic control. There was subtle, though again breed specific, impact of sex and older ages on CHD and ED. There was greater paternal impact on a reduction of CHD. In the absence of direct genetic tests for either of these two diseases, phenotypic selection has proven to be effective. Furthermore, the data underscore that selection schemes must be breed specific and that it is likely the genetic profiles will be unique across the breeds for these two conditions. Despite the advances achieved with phenotypic selection, incorporation of EBVs into selection schemes should accelerate advances in hip and elbow improvement. "The objectives of the present study were to characterize the influence of non-compulsory selection on phenotypic radiographic assessment of hip and elbow conformation over time. Dog breeds that were most highly participatory in a voluntary United States radiographic screening process for hips and elbows were evaluated for improvement, whether maternal or paternal selection was more responsible for any observed progress, whether some breeds prove more amenable to selection than others, and whether selection against one orthopedic disorder yielded concomitant improvement in the other." OUTTAKES... Discussion "Minimizing the incidence of debilitating orthopedic disorders is paramount, yet past studies that have evaluated CHD and ED heritability report highly variable estimates and nominal response to selection. Contributing factors to disparate heritability estimates include sample size, breed composition, and relatedness of the population studied. The time frame under study, if the evaluation scheme is voluntary or mandatory, and if all evaluations are available for analyses also influence the accuracy of the estimate and assessment of joint improvement. In the absence of DNA-based genetic testing, utilization of estimated breeding values based upon phenotypic radiographic assessment related to CHD and ED has been promoted. Therefore, it is important to best characterize the potential improvement that can be achieved based upon phenotypic selection. The present study was undertaken to comprehensively assess the impact of phenotypic selection on hips and elbows over several decades in multiple dog breeds."
  14. Version 1.0.0

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    Article links: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0172918 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0172918&type=printable (PDF) A. M. Oberbauer1*, G. G. Keller2, T. R. Famula1 1 Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA United States of America, 2 Orthopedic Foundation for Animals, Columbia, MO United States of America "The objectives of the present study were to characterize the influence of non-compulsory selection on phenotypic radiographic assessment of hip and elbow conformation over time. Dog breeds that were most highly participatory in a voluntary United States radiographic screening process for hips and elbows were evaluated for improvement, whether maternal or paternal selection was more responsible for any observed progress, whether some breeds prove more amenable to selection than others, and whether selection against one orthopedic disorder yielded concomitant improvement in the other." Abstract "Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) and elbow dysplasia (ED) impact the health and welfare of all dogs. The first formally organized assessment scheme to improve canine health centered on reducing the prevalence of these orthopedic disorders. Phenotypic screening of jointconformation remains the currently available strategy for breeders to make selection decisions. The present study evaluated the efficacy of employing phenotypic selection on breed improvement of hips and elbows using the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals complete database spanning the 1970±2015 time period. Sixty breeds having more than 1000 unique hip evaluations and 500 elbow evaluations (1,056,852 and 275,129 hip and elbow records, respectively) were interrogated to derive phenotypic improvement, sex and age at time of assessment effects, correlation between the two joints, heritability estimates, estimated breeding values (EBV), and effectiveness of maternal/paternal selection. The data demonstrated that there has been overall improvement in hip and elbow conformation with a reduction in EBV for disease liability, although the breeds differed in the magnitude of the response to selection. Heritabilities also differed substantially across the breeds as did the correlation of the joints; in the absence of a universal association of these differences with breed size, popularity, or participation in screening, it appears that the breeds themselves vary in genetic control. There was subtle, though again breed specific, impact of sex and older ages on CHD and ED. There was greater paternal impact on a reduction of CHD. In the absence of direct genetic tests for either of these two diseases, phenotypic selection has proven to be effective. Furthermore, the data underscore thatselection schemes must be breed specific and that it is likely the genetic profiles will be unique across the breeds for these two conditions. Despite the advances achieved with phenotypic selection, incorporation of EBVs into selection schemes should accelerate advances in hip and elbow improvement." From the Discussion... "The data presented here confirms that employing phenotypic health information and selecting sires and dams from pedigrees free from dysplasia does reduce the condition. Acceptance of using health information in breeding decisions is growing. A 2004 study of Dutch Boxer breeders [75] indicated that 32% of the breeders utilized genetic information, expressed as an odds ratio of particular sire-dam combinations producing deleterious health traits, in their mate selections. A recent report assessing selection practices among Australian dog breeders indicated that the ªgenetics and healthº attribute of potential dams was one of the top four decision components [76]; despite this weighting in dam selection some breeders failed to practice health screening, including for CHD. As selection tools for health characteristics improve, using those will demonstrably improve the health of dogs."
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    This article is available at: https://cgejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40575-017-0042-8 Many thanks to Emma Buckland, BioMed Central Ltd. for sharing this research with DWN. Plain English Summary "Osteosarcoma (bone cancer) is the most common cancer in Scottish Deerhounds. For Deerhounds, a 2007 study concluded that a single dominant genetic factor largely governed disease risk. For Greyhounds, Rottweilers, and Irish Wolfhounds, a 2013 study found multiple genetic markers in each breed, with each marker only weakly associated with the disease. We obtained from two breeders the pedigrees, age (if alive) or age at death, and bone cancer status for two families of Scottish Deerhounds, designated Cohorts K and T. A dog was considered unaffected only if it was free of bone cancer and at least 8.5 years old. We analyzed the data in two ways, by assuming either a single recessive genetic factor or a single dominant genetic factor. Cohort K contained 54 evaluable dogs representing 12 litters. Cohort T contained 56 evaluable dogs representing eight litters. Bone cancer seemed clearly heritable in both cohorts; however, having a parent with bone cancer raised a pup’s risk of developing bone cancer itself to 38% for Cohort K but 78% for Cohort T, suggesting the possibility of different genetic risk factors in each cohort. In Cohort K, bone cancer inheritance fit well with a single recessive risk factor, although we could not rule out the possibility of a single dominant risk factor. In Cohort T, inheritance could be explained well by a single dominant risk factor but was inconsistent with recessive expression. Inheritance of bone cancer in two Scottish Deerhound families could be explained well by a single genetic risk factor, consistent with a 2007 report. In one family, inheritance was consistent with dominant expression, as previously reported. In the other family, inheritance fit better with recessive expression, although the possibility of a dominant genetic factor influenced by one or more other genetic factors could not be ruled out. In either case, the results suggest that there may be at least two different genetic risk factors for bone cancer in Deerhounds."