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Ann Milligan

Administrators
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About Ann Milligan

  • Rank
    Administrator

Profile Information

  • Region
    North America
  • Location
    California
  • Country
    United States
  • Current Affiliation
    IPFD-DWN website
  • Position / Title
    DogWellNet Website Content Manager
  • Interests
    Dog Breeding
    Dog Health
    Training / Performance
    Dog Shows
    Event Planning
    Genetics
    Judging
    Education
    Research
    Dog Behavior
    Legal/Regulatory Issues
    Kennel Clubs
    Breed Club
    Human-Dog Interactions
  • Academic Credentials
    Bachelors degree
    Judging Certification
  • Expertise/Proficiencies
    Dog Training
    Dog Shows/Exhibitions
    Dog Breeding
    Writing/Communication
  • Specific Breed(s) of Interest
    all
  • Breed Club Rep; Board Member or Breeding/ Health Committee member
    No
  • Attended 3rd IDHW in Paris
    No
  • Theme attended at 3rd IDHW in Paris
    Breed-Specific Health Strategies

Recent Profile Visitors

5,348 profile views
  1. February 2019 We'd like to call your attention to two posts in DWN's New Research Blog. Consequences and Management of Canine Brachycephaly in Veterinary Practice: Perspectives from Australian Veterinarians and Veterinary Specialists See Brenda Bonnet's review of this research coming from Austalia that "covers the health problems and welfare issues in brachycephalic dogs highlighting a veterinary perspective."
  2. Consequences and Management of Canine Brachycephaly in Veterinary Practice: Perspectives from Australian Veterinarians and Veterinary Specialists Fawcett, et al., including Paul McGreevy, University of Sydney, Australia Animals 2019, 9, 3; doi:10.3390/ani9010003 https://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/9/1/3 For: Veterinarians, health care professionals, all stakeholders Review: Brenda Bonnett, DVM, PhD This comprehensive review covers the health problems and welfare issues in brachycephalic dogs highlighting a veterinary perspective. The text of the paper comprises 19 pages and includes a wide-range of topics. This paper is an excellent resource for veterinary health care professionals and clinicians. However, topics in this paper are also important for all stakeholders involved with the brachycephalic issue in dogs. At the end of the paper, there is an important discussion of the ethical challenges for veterinarians, both as individuals and the profession as a whole. Concerned that readers, especially those who are not clinicians, may not persevere through the clinical information to reach this important section, I will highlight the importance of that discussion below. First, a general overview: “Simple Summary: Canine and human co-evolution have disclosed remarkable morphological plasticity in dogs. Brachycephalic dog breeds are increasing in popularity, despite them suffering from well-documented conformation-related health problems. This has implications for the veterinary caseloads of the future. Whether the recent selection of dogs with progressively shorter and wider skulls has reached physiological limits is controversial. The health problems and short life expectancies of dogs with extremely short skulls suggests that we may have even exceeded these limits. Veterinarians have a professional and moral obligation to prevent and minimise the negative health and welfare impacts of extreme morphology and inherited disorders, and they must address brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) not only at the level of the patient, but also as a systemic welfare problem.” The broad range of topics include: · Concern that “Despite well-documented conformation-related health problems, brachycephalic dog breeds are increasing in popularity.”; · Detailed enumeration and description of associated health problems; · Behavioural impacts of brachycephaly, as well as · “substantial evidence that brachycephaly compromises the welfare of affected dogs”, highlighting insurance data and research findings; · Problems for individual dogs and their owners as well as for breed populations; · Immediate concerns as well as future perspectives; · Clinical diagnosis and management of BOAS and other problems in brachys, and · A thought provoking discussion of “Ethical Challenges Associated with Brachycephalic Breeds” and the role of veterinarians. Understanding the Complexity – the veterinary perspective Past all the discussion of clinical findings and approaches, the section on ethical challenges has excellent coverage of the concerns and conflicting interests for veterinarians. For example, the best resolution for competing issues is not always clear, e.g.: · the best interests of an individual dog, in general, and in relation to a specific health event; · its owner’s attachment, attitudes, wishes, needs, and ability to provide care; and · concerns for the breed overall, as well as · the practical reality of the veterinarian as both a caregiver and a business person. Two of the authors have also provided this summary: “Vets can do more to reduce the suffering of flat-faced dog breeds”: February 12, 2019 2.16pm EST http://theconversation.com/vets-can-do-more-to-reduce-the-suffering-of-flat-faced-dog-breeds-110702 It is important for all stakeholders to be aware of the challenges facing others as the dog world moves toward doing is what is best for dogs. Also see: DWN's Extremes of Conformation Category Latest on brachycephalics from Sweden Approaches to Breed-specific Extremes
  3. Ann Milligan

    The Brachycephalic Issue: Evidence, Emotion and Challenged Beliefs

    Sandøe, Peter & Kondrup, Sara Vincentzen & C. Bennett, P & Forkman, B & Meyer, Iben & F. Proschowsky, H & Serpell, James & Lund, Thomas. (2017). Why do people buy dogs with potential welfare problems related to extreme conformation and inherited disease? A representative study of Danish owners of four small dog breeds. PLoS ONE. 12. 10.1371/journal.pone.0172091. Why do people buy dogs with potential welfare problems related to extreme conformation and inherited disease? A representative study of Danish owners of four small dog breeds
  4. 2019 - UK - February 4th from The Kennel Club And Cambridge We are thrilled to read news about a Scheme launched to improve health of French Bulldogs, Pugs and Bulldogs... "A new screening scheme aims to provide breeders of French Bulldogs, Pugs and Bulldogs with more information about the health of their dogs, helping them reduce the risk of breeding puppies with potentially serious breathing problems." See more on the scheme at The University of Cambridge and The Kennel Club's website...
  5. Pilot study of head conformation changes over time in the Cavalier King Charles spaniel breed https://veterinaryrecord.bmj.com/content/184/4/122.full Breed Specific: Cavalier King Charles Spaniel: Conformation Traits/SM|CM Knowler, SP., Gillstedt, L., Mitchell, TJ., Jovanovik, J., Volk, HA., Rusbridge, C. (2019) Pilot study of head conformation changes over time in the Cavalier King Charles spaniel breed Veterinary Record 184, 122. Abstract Modern interpretation of head conformation in the Cavalier King Charles spaniel (CKCS) has favoured a smaller, more exaggerated, brachycephalic type than originally described in the 1929 breed standard. Recent research studies identified brachycephaly and reduced hind cranium as two conformational (dysmorphic) features that increase risk for symptomatic Chiari-like malformation and secondary syringomyelia (SM). A prospective pilot study investigated the hypothesis that dysmorphic head features could be assessed visually and correlated with risk of SM. Thirteen CKCS, selected from anonymised photographic evidence, were physically appraised by authorised Kennel Club judges using a head shape checklist. These subjective evaluations were then matched with objective measurements of the cranium (cephalic index and rostrocaudal doming) and their subsequent MRI. A positive correlation (P=0.039) between the judges’ checklist score and rostrocaudal doming (hindskull ratio) and a positive correlation between the cephalic index and hindskull ratio (P=0.042) were identified. Five CKCS had no SM and their status tallied with 62 per cent of the judges’ evaluation. Although the ability of adjudicators to identify differences in head conformation varied, there was sufficient association between the dysmorphic parameters and the risk of SM to cause concern and propose a larger study in CKCS breed. Breeder viewpoint: This research paper is a readily understandable PILOT study that covers how head shapes relate to scientific information on SM/CM in Cavaliers. Which skull shapes represent identifiable extremes and can/should anything be done to curtail the drift towards hypertype over the past few decades? Which direction do the breed enthusiasts want to go? In the Discussion section, "breeders have acknowledged that there has been a more brachycephalic interpretation of the breed standard over the last few decades." Further, " The concept that increased exaggeration of head shape in the CKCS can be recognised visually and supported by the proven association of brachycephaly with resulting rostrocaudal doming5 suggests the possibility for selection against the extreme head shape in the CKCS to enable a reduction in CM/SM incidence." Take a look at this study for photos that represent different shapes and measurements of CKCS head type/backskulls. Maybe it's worth considering the information offered when choosing dogs for showing and breeding. Yes, it's a small study - and yes, there is some variation in interpretation of the degree to which dogs viewed are visibly extreme, and, there are Limitations to the study that are outlined by the researchers. But given the possible relationship between squished backskulls and their potential association with SM/CM and its impact on the quality of life for dogs - maybe this research is worth a glance for breeders and for judges. Lots of illustrations and pictures were helpful. Breed Advisor viewpoint: Veterinary Epidemiologist viewpoint:
  6. The study is here... https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29446145 Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis 8 (NCL8) Breed: Saluki - HGTD - https://dogwellnet.com/ctp/?module=items&controller=phenes&id=176&breeds=483 OMIA: https://omia.org/OMIA001506/9615/
  7. View IPFD Board member Patricia Olson's presentation at The Role of Clinical Studies for Pets with Naturally Occurring Tumors in Translational Cancer Research: A Workshop (June, 2015) Best-practices for conduct of clinical trial for animal patients Also see the PDF... http://www.nationalacademies.org/hmd/~/media/Files/Activity Files/Disease/NCPF/2015-JUN-8/Olson.pdf Other presentations from the workshop are available. http://www.nationalacademies.org/hmd/Activities/Disease/NCPF/2015-JUN-08/Day 2 Videos/Session 6 Videos/28-Olson-Video.aspx See: Dr. Mathew Breen's presentation which elaborates on the powerful opportunity possible with identification of genetic factors in the dog contributing to advancing cancer research in humans and Dr. Heidi Parker's - Canine Cancer Genomics
  8. Purdue's Center for Animal Welfare Science The CAWS Project aim is "to help the US pet industries address the socio-ethical and scientific (well-being) concerns embedded in commercial dog breeding. With the support of dog breeders, pet industry representatives, animal health and welfare experts, and other key stakeholders, the researchers are developing and testing voluntary standards for the care and well-being of dogs in commercial breeding facilities." Establishing science-based standards for the care and welfare of breeding dogs...
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    Files list DachsLife 2018 v1.pptx 8.4 mb DachsLife 2018 v1.pdf 6.9 mb Aus-NZ DachsLife 2018 v1.pptx 546 kb Nordic DachsLife 2018 v1.pptx 910 kb
  10. Check out Brenda's blog... and the Seminar video...
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    This is a short summary of RAS – Breeding strategies of the breed ‐ Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever. The RAS is a document covering the breed and the breeding strategies for the future of a healthy and sound Toller. The full document is for now only in Swedish. The RAS has a yearly follow‐up, and is readjusted every 5th year, and is now in a working process (2019). -VERSION 2014‐
  12. Several recent articles have raised concerns about the quality of canine genetic testing. There is concern about the quality measures, standards and practices of genetic test providers (GTPs), but there are also factors related to test discovery, validation and application that may limit our ability to get the most out of genetic testing. Confusion, lack of transparency, absence of needed information on many levels, and incomplete understanding of the situations, individuals and breeds where testing is most useful are among the challenges. This article is in response to numerous queries and discussions on what is needed to improve the situation.
  13. A recent publication authored by members of the HGTD puts forward a suggested system of standards and guidelines for canine genetic testing laboratories. Standards and guidelines for canine clinical genetic testing laboratories https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00439-018-1954-4 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ See the IPFD commentary on this publication, in the context of Improving Canine Genetic Testing. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ First Online: 13 November 2018... The paper sets out a series of standard requirements the authors feel should provide both minimum and optimal standards for any canine genetic testing laboratory, including: personnel, facilities, quality practices, privacy issues, and a section on test validation and results reporting. A self-assessment check list is also available. While not all aspects of the self-assessment will be applicable to all genetic test providers, it is one way that test providers may choose to improve the quality of direct to consumer genetic testing.
  14. The book, Standards, Santé et Génétique chez le Chien / Standards, Health and Genetics in the Dog was created by the Société Centrale Canine (SCC) in collaboration with the Fédération Cynophile Internationale (F.C.I.) and the Swedish Kennel Club (SKK). Under the direction of Claude Guintard and Grégoire Leroy, the publication was presented as a tribute to Mrs. René Sporre-Willes and Mr. Raymond Triquet, longstanding chairs of the F.C.I.'s the Standards Commission, at the Third IPFD Dog Health Workshop held in Paris from April 21 to 23, 2017. Standards, Santé et Génétique chez le Chien / Standards, Health and Genetics in the Dog presents information from the world of dogs which can be applied in service to canine and human health and well-being. This work includes contributions by veterinarians, researchers, and dog-theorists who offer insights into the development of breed standards as well as the incredible advances in molecular genetics. We at DogWellNet are delighted to be able to present the content from this book's 396 pages which includes 20 texts in English and in French distributed in two large chapters. The book's Table of Contents (TOC-Standards, Santé et Génétique chez le Chien-Standards, Health and Genetics in Dogs) is available to DWN guests as well as DWN members. DWN members will have access to all of the book's texts available in DWN's Downloads section. Over the coming year we will feature texts from the book in DWN articles which will be accessible to DWN's members as well as guests. We would like to thank the book's producers and authors for their exceptional knowledge, extraordinary insights and for their willingness to share their expertise with people who are a part of the international dog community.
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