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Ann Milligan

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  1. Mission Facilitate collaboration and sharing of resources to enhance the health, well-being and welfare of pedigreed dogs and all dogs worldwide. Vision An enduring global collaboration enhancing dog health, well-being and welfare, and human-dog interactions. Values Dog health, well-being and welfare and human-dog interactions contribute to the quality of life for both species. The world is a better place because we share it with dogs. Dog issues are important around the globe and international sharing and cooperation is needed. Goals The general goals of the IPFD are to: Enhance the health, well-being and welfare of dogs and enrich human-dog interactions To facilitate sharing of knowledge, information, experience and resources across stakeholders (including, e.g., kennel clubs (KCs), veterinary and other professional organisations, health foundations, and others) to improve the health and well-being of purpose-bred dogs. To provide evaluation and interpretation of information to support the actions of stakeholders in dog health, well-being and welfare To facilitate specific actions to improve health and well-being of dogs, including, e.g. to design globally relevant breed-specific breeding strategies. To bring the dog community closer together through DogWellNet.com (below). Objectives The specific objectives of the IPFD shall be to: Create an online resource, i.e., DogWellNet.com to: Provide a clearing house of information, documents and digital resources on all material relevant to dog health and well-being (including, e.g., breeding regulations/recommendations, national/international legislation, health information, etc.) including technology for translation to English and other languages. Promote collaboration among diverse stakeholders interested in dog well-being by increasing the contacts between them, their knowledge of each other’s activities and facilitating cooperation via electronic-communication and other means. Provide evidence- and knowledge-based sharing of information, expertise and resources through evaluation and interpretation by international expert panels. Provide a platform for international collaboration on specific actions, e.g. expert input / validation of tests /procedures and breed-specific strategies to improve health and well-being Create a sustainable organization of relevance to and with credibility across a wide variety of stakeholders in the pedigreed dog world, as well as with concerns for all dogs, everywhere, by: Developing partnerships between KCs and other stakeholders in order to be globally relevant, inclusive and transparent in terms of objectives and actions. Building a financial base for on-going achievement of the vision, goals and objectives. Building networks of experts and supporting their work through online developments. Building a collective of volunteers to contribute to the work of the organisation.
  2. The International Partnership for Dog's DogWellNet.com website serves as a platform to facilitate the international collaboration and distribution of knowledge, expertise and experience. DogWellNet.com, is an open access, ever-expanding information hub, providing links, documents, and additional resources to breeders and others in the dog world. Content and materials offered by our Partners, Contributors and Collaborators are designed to enhance the health, well-being and welfare of dogs. History: DogWellNet.com was opened to the public (guests) in February 2015 after the 2nd International Dog Health Workshop in Dortmund, Germany. FYI: Although almost all DogWellNet content is available to guests, we encourage readers to sign up. Access to the various areas of DogWellNet.com is dependent on your level of membership (e.g., Guest, Member or Advanced Member...). Guests can view public content or create a Member account to access additional material and features. Signing up as a DogWellNet.com Member is quick, easy and free! To register, click the Sign Up button in the top-right corner of the Homepage. Fill out the form and click the Create my Account button at the bottom. Shortly after, you will receive a validation email - follow the instructions in the email to confirm your registration. Highlights... IPFD International Dog Health Workshops (IDHWs) - Materials from the IPFD International Dog Health Workshops, which bring together stakeholders from around the world to improve the health, well-being and welfare of dogs. The Harmonization of Genetic Testing for Dogs (HGTD) - Database, articles, and other resources associated with the IPFD's Harmonization for Genetic Testing for Dogs initiative. Health & Breeding Articles - Topics of interest for anyone involved in breeding dogs, including those providing advice to breeders, breed clubs or kennel clubs Pedigreed Dogs Database - breed pages include breed standards, population data, club newsletters, breed databases, videos and much, much more. Native Breeds and Additional Resources including Agria Breed Profiles are available. Blogs - topics and observations by experts Hot Topics - Highlights current issues and timely discussions for consumers, breeders, veterinarians, researchers and other members of our community Population Data - Data needed to underpin decisions on health and breeding, i.e. data enumerating and describing dog populations, in general, as well as, the occurrence of disease in dog populations, breed populations, etc. Welfare - Welfare issues related to the breeding and distribution of purposely bred dogs, issues and legislation related to health and welfare and human-animal interactions Downloads - Breeding Strategies, shared event resources, Agria Breed profiles, and canine genetics, research, health and welfare resources and materials Website Content Overview - The DogWellNet Digest, our online newsletter, published several times a year provides a collection of the latest news and highlights from IPFD/DogWellNet.com. Current and past issues of DogWellNet Digest are available at https://dogwellnet.com/content/ipfd/dogwellnetcom-digest/ A key goal of DogWellNet.com is to promote and facilitate international collaboration. Our purpose is to provide expert commentary and guidance in interpretation and use of information pertaining to dog health and welfare topics and issues. JOIN US! to collaborate with the global dog world on DogWellNet.com - the web platform of the International Partnership for Dogs - as we work to enhance the health, well-being and welfare of dogs. https://dogwellnet.com/ipfd/get-involved/invitation-breed-experts-health-committee-members-r57/ Contact Us General Inquiries: info@ipfdogs.com Harmonization of Genetic Testing inquires: IPFD CEO Brenda.Bonnett@ipfdogs.com or Project Director Aimee.Llewellyn-Zaidi@ipfdogs.com Website content inquiries: website Content Manager Ann Milligan Ann.Milligan@ipfdogs.com
  3. IPFD is a truly "people driven" service organization. Our structure and resources (a modest budget and small group of consultants, volunteers, and Board Members) facilitate the activities of our stakeholders to achieve our individual and collective priorities for the health and welfare of dogs. As a growing, independent voice within the global dog community, we aim to provide the best possible information and advice to assist our stakeholders in making optimal decisions for their members, customers, and breed(s) of interest. IPFD provides and supports a ‘big picture’, balanced, transparent and integrated approach to the complex challenges for dogs and the people who care about them. Our key audiences are, first and foremost, committed and health-conscious breeders, as well as those who support and advise them (kennel and breed club health committees, breeding advisors, veterinarians, researchers etc.), but also include essentially all those involved in the world of dogs including, kennel/breed clubs; dog owners; the pet industry; and more. Our consultants work tirelessly to engage others who embrace our vision and are willing to share their information, expertise, and passion for dogs. We connect with these stakeholders through our online platform, DogWellNet. com; social media; and direct correspondence; in addition to hosting/ attending face-to-face meetings, conferences (e.g. the IPFD IDHWs), seminars, and other educational/networking events.
  4. Reception within the Dog Community Extensive Outreach: IPFD and DogWellNet.com are being received enthusiastically by the dog community (see examples of media coverage in our IPFD News section), and we are frequently used as a resource and our CEO and other IPFD contributors are approached by partner organizations for veterinary meetings, educational events for breeders and judges, and government and regulatory groups to share international perspectives on tough issues. Recent examples include: Outreach Seminar on Healthy Breeding - 42nd World Small Animal Veterinary Association Congress and 23rd FECAVA Eurocongress Breeding healthy dogs: IPFD CEO Dr. Brenda Bonnett talks about the use of breed specific insurance statistics for breeders, breed clubs, veterinarians and other stakeholders AKC-CHF 2017 National Parent Club Canine Health Conference BONNETT - AKC-CHF Presentation - Harmonization of Genetic Testing for Dogs | BONNETT Abstract - CHF June 2017 Collaborative Inspiration: The IDHWs bring together decision-leaders from over 20 countries to improve cooperation on shared goals and to promote needed actions. Read: Moving from information and collaboration to action: report from the 3rd International Dog Health Workshop, Paris in April 2017 Trusted Expertise - An Independent Voice: We are also increasingly viewed as an important independent voice - with a view of the entire landscape - such as during recent discussions on genetics and genomics for dogs. Join us: IPFD encourages potential contributors, collaborators, sponsors, and others in the dog world to contact us (see below) to explore ways for us to work together in furthering the health, welfare, and well-being of dogs.
  5. Join us on Social Media... https://www.facebook.com/InternationalPartnershipForDogs/ https://www.instagram.com/ipfdogs/ https://twitter.com/IPFDogs https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCpHRNqp4m-9g5UoHDQ6IeOQ See a selection of Press articles related to IPFD's Harmonization of Genetic Testing HERE. Our People - News In December 2019 IPFD welcomed five new Board members - representing a broad array of international stakeholders in dog health, well-being and welfare . They include: Bill Lambert, IPFD Vice-Chair, (UK); Dave Eikelberg (USA); Marty Greer (USA); Grégoire Leroy (France); and Barbara Thiel (Germany). They join continuing Board Members: Dr. Pekka Olson, IPFD Chair (Sweden); Peter Friedrich (Germany); Kirsi Sainio (Finland); and IPFD Chief Financial Officer Ulf Uddman (Sweden). Building on the outstanding work of the initial IPFD Board (Board Members transitioning out at the end of 2019 included: Caroline Kisko (UK), Jean-Pierre Genevois (France), and Patricia N. Olson (USA)), the Board will continue to guide IPFD's work to improve the health, well-being, and welfare of all dogs worldwide. The International Partnership for Dogs (IPFD) is also delighted to introduce Monique Megens as its first Chief Operating Officer (COO). See Our People's profiles Here. 29 June 2019 |VET RECORD - Volume 184, Issue 26 Improving the health of pedigree dogs By Suzanne Jarvis "A RANGE of actions are needed to improve the health of pedigree dogs, and multiple stakeholders must be engaged for progress to be made.That was the outcome from the fourth International Dog Health Workshop (IDHW), held earlier this month and hosted by the International Partnership for Dogs (IPFD) and The Kennel Club in the UK." DWN's article... Vet Record News - 4th IDHW workshop - "Improving the health of pedigree dogs" This article includes comments made by the IPFD's CEO, Brenda Bonnett, The Kennel Club's Caroline Kisko, Dan O’Neill, senior lecturer in companion animal epidemiology at the Royal Veterinary College, and BVA's Daniella Dos Santos - comments focused on stakeholder involvement and actions for dog health, well-being and welfare.
  6. See the September 2016 IPFD Presentation to the Kennel Club's Breed Health Coordinators 2.45 MB · 0 downloads IPFD_Presentation to KC BHCs Sept 2016_post meeting notes_for DWN-web.pdf Are you involved in a dog club for your breed? Would you like to share information from your kennel club, breed club or country with DogWellNet.com? Already a DogWellNet.com Member? Sign In, make sure your profile is up-to-date and see Next Steps, below. Visiting us as a guest? Sign Up to participate. Sign Up is open to the public and new participants automatically become DogWellnet.com Members Members of DogWellNet have access to content including our partner organizations' work on breed management strategies, articles and health data on breeds located throughout the world. Members can participate in Member Forums, may comment on material and have access to some content that is not available to those viewing the site as a guest. Register at http://dogwellnet.com/register/ to become a DogWellNet Member! Please make sure you fill in your profile. Help is available to set up your account. Next Steps: Contact us if you want to actively participate in providing content. How? Contact us at https://dogwellnet.com/contact/ Who? We are especially keen to connect with Breed Club or other Health Committee representatives or others looking at health and breeding issues. Why? Our goal is to facilitate the sharing of expertise and resources and to profile the good work done being done throughout the dog world with the focus on 'Sharing and Caring for Dogs'. What? Have a look through information in the Pedigreed Dogs database, e.g. check out the Irish Wolfhound to see the type of information we are trying to build. Do you have breed-specific information to share - links, health surveys, seminar presentations, breed management strategies (e.g. RAS and JTO), research papers or projects, etc. etc. A key goal of DogWellNet.com is to promote and facilitate international collaboration. Our purpose is to provide expert commentary and guidance in interpretation and use of information pertaining to dog health and welfare topics and issues. JOIN US! to collaborate with the global dog world on DogWellNet.com - the web platform of the International Partnership for Dogs - as we work to enhance the health, well-being and welfare of dogs.
  7. IPFD is truly a "people driven" service organization. We allocate the bulk of our financial resources to maintain a small but dedicated team of consultants to manage our modest resources and facilitate the activities of our stakeholders, with the aim of achieving our collective goals. Your generous donation to support IPFD and its programs helps ensure our long-term sustainability and supports ongoing efforts to create an enduring global collaboration that enhances the health, well-being, and welfare of all dogs worldwide. By supporting the Harmonization of Genetic Testing for Dogs initiative you can help us improve standardization of, and access to, robust genetic testing to support health improvements and a sustainable future for healthy dogs.
  8. Click the links below to view resources from each IDHW: 2012: 1st International Dog Health Workshop, hosted by the Swedish Kennel Club, Stockholm, Sweden 2015: 2nd International Dog Health Workshop, co-hosted by the German Kennel Club (VDH), in Dortmund, Germany 2017: 3rd International Dog Health Workshop, co-hosted by the French Kennel Club (SCC), Paris, France 2019: 4th International Dog Health Workshop, co-hosted by the Kennel Club, Windsor, UK Stay tuned for announcements on the 5th International Dog Health Workshop in 2021!
  9. One of the major IPFD projects, the Harmonization of Genetic Testing for Dogs (HGTD) arose from discussions at the International Dog Health Workshops (IDHWs); the HGTD is a proud achievement, exemplifying the IDHW’s tagline: From Information and Collaboration to Action! The goal of the HGTD is to improve standardization of, and access to, robust genetic testing to support health improvements and a sustainable future for healthy dogs. It is a portal for information on Genetic Testing Providers (labs); genetic tests, and tests by breed. There are two major components: the Quality Testing Database and Genetic Counselling resources. Information pertaining to genetic testing including genetic terms, FAQ's, accreditation, guidelines, standards and more is available HERE. As of January 2020 the HGTD Database now includes 76 academic and commercial genetic test providers (GTPs) in 22 countries. The database currently includes information on accreditation and tests for 42 collaborating GTPs; 37 non-participating GTPs are also listed. Our searchable genetic phenes database currently holds information on 300+ phenes across all breeds/types, and provides a plethora of information on each phene: links to OMIA, gene + mutations, a simple and advanced disease description, inheritance details, links to original publications, patents/licenses, comments from the original researchers/experts on application, and breed specific information (such as research/validation) - where possible. Go to the HGTD! Our projects moving forward in 2020... Expanding engagement of GTPs, Integration of Expert Panels, Health Strategies Database (HSDD), and the Get a GRIHP Program) to enhance breed-specific information and outputs We are pleased that we continue to have sponsorship and support from many of our key Leadership Sponsors to develop our work for 2020. We would welcome anyone with an interest in contributing to, or participating in, the HGTD project to contact us. We are particularly keen to engage with academic and research institutions providing testing, who are concerned about ensuring genetic testing is a beneficial and responsible resource. Contact: IPFD CEO Brenda.Bonnett@ipfdogs.com or Project Director Aimee.Llewellyn-Zaidi@ipfdogs.com HGTD NEWS In this article we present a collection of links and excerpts from media coverage of IPFD's Harmonization of Genetic Testing for Dogs initiative. We will be adding more content as media articles are published. In the News: Harmonization of Genetic Testing for Dogs ALSO: See the HGTD summary article for Additional Information: HGTD Rationale and Background
  10. AUTHOR: HELLE FRIIS PROSCHOWSKY, DVM, PH.D., SPECIAL CONSULTANT, THE DANISH KENNEL CLUB (DKC) See: https://www.dachshund-ivdd.uk/what-is-ivdd/danish-ivdd-paper-2019/ PDF version: https://www.dachshund-ivdd.uk/app/download/11009159/Herniated+discs+HFP+2019+v4.pdf IVDD is explored in this concise presentation which was originally published in the March 2019 issue of the Danish Kennel Club magazine (HUNDEN). Translated version by Frøydis Hardeng and Ian Seath..
  11. See the Blog "Every Step We Take".
  12. 2020... The Brachycephalic Working Group has posted resources on Bulldogs, French Bulldogs & Pugs... VetCompass developed infographics, which summarise brachycephalic breed research... What's available? Bulldogs in the UK: Facing up to some challenges + full paper; French Bulldogs: Soaring UK popularity + full paper; Pugs: Weighing up health priorities + full paper
  13. comment doesn't belong here - not an IPFD partner or affiliate website
  14. The Extremes of Conformation Theme has been discussed at the Dog Health Workshops held in 2012, 2015, 2017 and 2019. This document provides a timeline-based group of resources available on DogWellNet including articles, blogs and links to plenary presentations from the workshops. brachy - extremes theme - dwn - idhw - 1-4 - timeline.pdf During the past decade a great deal has been accomplished to address health and welfare issues that relate to conformation extremes across breeds. Particular focus has been paid to health challenges present in the short muzzled breeds, several of which have become exceedingly popular in recent years. Efforts have included scientific research, Kennel and Breed Club educational programs, involvements by veterinary associations located throughout the world and governmental approaches to regulating breeds provide an informed view of how extremes can impact health and welfare of dogs - views come from different stakeholder groups. We at DWN are pleased to be a part of sharing information from the Dog Health Workshops as well as other collected resources with the community.
  15. Packer RMA, O’Neill DG, Fletcher F, Farnworth MJ (2019) Great expectations, inconvenient truths, and the paradoxes of the dog-owner relationship for owners of brachycephalic dogs. PLoS ONE 14(7): e0219918. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0219918 Abstract Popularity of brachycephalic (flat-faced) dog breeds is increasing internationally despite well-documented intrinsic health and welfare problems associated with their conformation. Given this apparent paradox, greater understanding of the expectations and reality for brachycephalic dog owners and factors driving the dog-owner bond are needed. This study reports a large-scale online survey with valid responses from 2168 owners of brachycephalic dogs (Pugs: n = 789, median age of dogs 2.5 years; French Bulldog: n = 741, median age 2.0 years; Bulldogs: n = 638, median age 2.5 years). The most common owner-reported disorders in their dogs were allergies, corneal ulcers, skin fold infections and Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome (BOAS). One-fifth (19.9%) of owners reported that their dog had undergone at least one conformation-related surgery, 36.5% of dogs were reported with a problem with heat regulation, and 17.9% with problems breathing. Despite awareness of their dog’s health issues, 70.9% owners considered their dog to be in very good health or the best health possible. Paradoxically, just 6.8% of owners considered their dog to be less healthy than average for their breed. Dog owner-relationships were extremely strong across all three breeds. Emotional closeness to their dog was highest for owners of Pugs, female owners, and owners with no children in the household. Ownership of brachycephalic dog breeds is a complex phenomenon, characterised by extremely strong dog-owner relationships and unrealistic perceptions of good health set against high levels of disease in relatively young dogs. Perceptual errors in owner beliefs appear to exist between brachycephalic owner perspectives of their own dog’s health versus the health of the rest of their breed, which may be fuelled by cognitive dissonance processes. These novel data improve our understanding of the cognitive processes and relationships that facilitate the rising popularity of breeds that paradoxically are affected by high levels of conformation-related morbidity. Comment: Breeder View This study may be of interest to clubs or breeders who are responsible for educating buyers regarding health concerns present in Pugs, Bulldogs and French Bulldogs. Value exists in educating potential owners of these breeds as to health concerns that may impact owner experiences with their dogs over a given dog's lifetime. The reality is, the dog's ages represented in this survey may have had a some influence on owner assessments of costs of veterinary care and of owner perceptions of time and resources dedicated to caring for their dog - costs and perceptions that may change as their dog ages. It was not entirely clear to me the source of dogs whose owners participated in this survey - in other words from whom were the dogs purchased - show breeders (health tested/conformation evaluated dogs) or other sources. The references listed in this research provide perspective. DogWellNet has collected a number of resources that address the Brachycephalic Issue. The IPFD's Dog Health Workshops have included plenary talks from the Extremes of Conformation theme in which stakeholder concerns over management of health and welfare in brachycephalic breeds and actions to improve matters are addressed. Related article: JAVMA: Owners of brachycephalic dogs are a complicated lot Posted Oct. 9, 2019 https://www.avma.org/News/JAVMANews/Pages/191101h.aspx This article is an easy read and summarizes the study.
  16. The severity of Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome (BOAS) is assessed by means of walk tests. With the help of walk tests, individuals with the most severe symptoms can be eliminated from breeding.
  17. For some time, pet obesity has been recognized as a crucial, widespread issue that impacts the health, welfare, and lifespan of dogs. Earlier in 2019, following the 4th IDHW, IPFD endorsed the Global Pet Obesity Initiative Position Statement, joining 24 International Veterinary Professional Organizations, including the American Veterinary Medical Association Board of Directors, British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Canadian Veterinary Medical Association, World Small Animal Veterinary Association, among others. Pet obesity is a studied health and welfare issue that is, presumably, quite straightforward... and under control of owners to fix. However, as for issues around human obesity, in reality the situation can be more complicated; and recent studies have examined some of the complexities, for people and their pets. An IPFD collaborator, Prof. Peter Sandoe (University of Copenhagen), and others published a paper in 2014 on Canine and feline obesity: A One Health perspective that offers a broad coverage of the problem, why it is important, how the Human-Animal Bond impacts challenges, and, importantly, "Why we should care". From the article: "Recent years have seen a drastic increase in the rates of overweight and obesity among people living in some developed nations. There has also been increased concern over obesity in companion animals. In the latest article in Veterinary Record's series on One Health, Peter Sandøe and colleagues argue that the relationship between obesity in people and in companion animals is closer and more complex than previously thought, and that obesity should be treated as a One Health problem." Below, under Recent Research you will find articles that address specific challenges, including perception of obesity and inaccurate assessment of body conditions score (as a measure of obesity). The evolution of obesity: from evolutionary advantage to a disease describes the historical perspectives and the current situation: "Obesity as a disease was first described by Hippocrates" ... and ... "in 1920’s the Insurance Companies, in 1948 World Health Organisation and in 2013 both American Medical Association and The American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology and The Obesity Society recognized obesity as a disease." As described above, this approach has also been taken in the veterinary world. These acknowledgements are made with the goal of facilitating treatment, promoting research, and with an aim to curb this growing health and public health problem. Obesity can cause or worsen many health conditions, and the risk is enhanced for certain breeds and types of pets. Brachycephalic (flat-faced pets), already challenged in terms of respiratory function and heat regulation, are further compromised if overweight. This can be viewed as not only a health problem, but also as a welfare problem - but many owners remain unaware. See, e.g. Owners' perception of 'responsible dog ownership in our Blogs section. Veterinarians can offer clients sound advice for management of their pet to optimize health. Here, we'll feature work done by IPFD's collaborators as well as provide links to industry reports, research and educational tool kits which have been developed to assist owners and veterinary practices. Check out articles, surveys and other important info at the Global Pet Obesity Initiative's website + see the 2019 Pet Owner Survey - An opportunity to contribute! US Residents: would you like to participate in ongoing research into obesity? The Association for Pet Obesity Prevention is conducting the 12th Annual National Pet Obesity Awareness Day Survey This survey was opened to US residents on October 9, 2019. To participate, sign up here. Veterinary practice/clinic participation in this organization's 2020 pet weight data collection survey next October is sought as well.
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    ON THE ORIGINS OF BREED TYPES BY MEANS OF HUMAN ACTION Slides from Peter Friedrich's plenary talk from the 4th IDHW, Windsor, 31 May 2019 Also see: Friedrich, Peter, 2018, Questionable Phenotypic Traits in the Rottweiler - which offers information on valuable breed traits, comments on the "Redesigned Rottweilers with extreme characteristics..." i.e. the impacts of trendiness supported by media and human motivations to possess special, extravagant and innovative dogs."
  19. Purdue University News - Press release - Your dog might be hiding its true colors From the Press release... " New research from Purdue University’s College of Veterinary Medicine shows that some breeds of dogs have hidden coat colors – and in some cases, other traits – that have been lurking all along. Example: There are around 18 recognized breeds of dogs that have the genetic potential to be born without a tail – such as the popular Australian Shepherd (shown in photo). But the data shows that up to 48 of the breeds analyzed possess the tailless gene variant, usually at a very low frequency." Wisdom Health - Press release - First-of-its-kind study reveals genetic traits determining coat colors and physical appearance in over 200 dog breeds November 2019 From the Press release... "As our study demonstrates, purebred dogs have so much more than meets the eye - literally. The information provided by a WISDOM PANEL dog DNA test can help us better understand the hidden elements of dog genetics," said Dr. Angela Hughes DVM PhD, veterinarian and canine genetics expert at Wisdom Health. "While our study focused primarily on purebred populations, these hidden traits can also have ramifications for mixed breed dogs. When unexpected or hidden traits are passed to mixed breed dogs from their purebred ancestors, it further complicates the already difficult task of visual breed identification making DNA tests the only reliable method of determining breed ancestry." Read the study... True Colors: Commercially-acquired morphological genotypes reveal hidden allele variation among dog breeds, informing both trait ancestry and breed potential Comment: Extracted content of interest to dog breeders & breed managers... See S3 Table. Unfavorable or “fault” phenotypes possible by breed and breed registry. "Breeds genotyped to have alleles that would produce phenotypes considered as a “fault” by either the American Kennel Club (AKC), Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI), United Kennel Club (UKC), or The Kennel Club of the UK (KC). The level of tolerance within each breed registry is designated as either not allowed (N), not preferred (n.p.), allowed (Y), or ambiguously worded (amb.). A breed not recognized by a given organization is indicated with a dash (-). Inheritance of the fault-causing allele is designated as dominant (D), recessive (R), or compound heterozygote (CH). Breed name abbreviations are as listed in S1 Table. Probabilities for producing the non-standard phenotype were calculated assuming random mating within the breed, and account for multi-gene inheritance, expression, and epistatic effects." https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0223995.s005 " Much recent emphasis has been placed on the importance of genetic diversity within breeds [69–76]. With the conservation of diversity in mind, breeders and breed organizations must weigh the relative value of breed standard conformity with preservation of genetic diversity. The existence of unfavorable, though arguably benign pigmentation or morphological variations, has here been quantified and can be addressed by applied genetic screening to reduce the carrier frequency of breeding stock, or by reassessing breed standards to broaden the acceptance of preexisting variation. Likewise, though our analyses have indicated that production of disallowed phenotypes is generally quite low, the occurrence of an undesirable pigmentation trait should not necessarily exclude a dog from purebred status if that variant has been detected in the appropriate population. As a recent example, effective 1 January 2019, the Great Dane Club of America revised their breed standard to allow merle coloring on a black base. Canine genetic research has clarified that the presence of the merle allele is required for the Harlequin phenotype [14]; since this relationship was previously unclear, the breed had not allowed merle (without the Harlequin modifier) until this change. These revisions demonstrate the purebred dog community recognizing and willingly implementing the findings from canine genetic research. The present work will guide similar decision-making by breed clubs regarding definition of acceptable breed colors. "
  20. From - Standards, Health and Genetics in Dogs - Chapter II - Genetic testing in dogs - Marie Abitbol (France) "The first part of this chapter presents the genetic characteristics of the canine species and the basics of canine genetics. The second part addresses the use of screening and diagnostic tests for inherited diseases, with a focus on genetic counselling and the parameters that determine the interpretation of test results. The third part concentrates on the search for informations on canine inherited diseases and the tests available. The final part presents tests for aesthetic characteristics such as coat colour."
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    Jerold Bell outlines concerns involved with use of genetic tests - 2012 IDHW
  22. Jerold S Bell DVM (jerold.bell@tufts.edu) Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University presented this article at the 2019 AKC Canine Health Foundation National Parent Club Canine Health Conference. The article has been reprinted here with the written permission of the author.
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