Reminder: Login to access new features and members-only content!

Register to be a member of our community. Its easy!

Register a new account

Already a member?

Log In here!

Donate

Did you find our content interesting or helpful? Help support the IPFD enhance health, well-being and welfare for dogs everywhere.

Jump to content
  •   Language
  • Sign Up

International Partnership for Dogs - Enhancing Dog Health, Well-Being, and Welfare - Join Us.

Search the Community

Showing results for 'french bulldog'.

  • Search By Tags

    Type tags separated by commas.
  • Search By Author

Content Type


Categories

  • About DogWellNet
    • DogWellNet.com Digest
    • More on DogWellNet.com
    • IPFD News
    • IPFD in the Media
    • More on our Partners and Collaborators
    • Disclaimers & Policies
    • Press
    • IPFD Board
    • About Us
  • Hot Topics
    • Brachycephalics
    • Antimicrobial Resistance / Prudent Use of Antibiotics
  • IPFD International Dog Health Workshops
    • IPFD International Dog Health Workshops - NEWS and Reports
    • IPFD International Dog Health Workshop #4
    • IPFD International Dog Health Workshop #3
    • 2nd International Dog Health Workshop
    • 1st International Dog Health Workshop
  • Health and Breeding
    • Breed-Specific Approaches
    • DogWellNet: Layout and Structure
    • Health and Screening Tests
    • DogWellNet: The Community and Forums
    • Breeding
    • Breeds
  • Population Data on Dogs, Health and Disease
    • Sources of Population Data
    • General Principles
    • Breed Club Health Surveys
    • Disease | Condition-Specific Articles
  • Welfare
    • Welfare and Health
    • Sourcing and Commercial Breeding
    • Dog-Specific Legislation and Programs
    • Human-Dog Interactions
  • Education
    • Education for Judges
    • Education for Youth
    • Education for Veterinary Professionals
    • Education of Consumers and the Public
    • Education of Breeders
  • Research
  • HGTD Quality Database
  • HGTD Genetic Counselling
  • International Actions

Categories

  • Pedigreed Breeds
  • Additional Breed Resources
  • Native Breeds

Categories

  • Overview
    • History and Media Resources
    • IPFD News
  • Who We Are
    • Leadership
    • IPFD Annual Reports
  • Partners and Sponsors
    • Contributing Partners
    • Collaborating Partners
    • Sponsors
  • What We Do
    • DogWellNet.com
    • Harmonization of Genetic Testing for Dogs
    • IPFD International Dog Health Workshops (IDHWs)
  • How We Work
    • The IPFD Approach
    • Policies and Disclaimers
  • Where We Work
  • Get Involved

Categories

  • Quick Start
  • Your Account
  • Navigation
  • Participating in the Community
  • Using the DogWellNet Forums
  • Technical Issues

Categories

  • General
  • IPFD Images for Slider
  • Homepage slider

Blogs

There are no results to display.

There are no results to display.

Categories

  • Regulations
    • Government Regulations
    • Kennel Club Regulations
  • Swedish Insurance Data
  • Swedish Breeding Strategy (RAS) Documents (English Summary)
  • Breed-Specific Documents
  • Welfare and Health
    • Health Conditions
  • Breed Club Health Surveys
  • Breeding
  • Behaviour / Temperament
  • IDHW Files
    • 1st IDHW
    • 2nd IDHW
    • IPFD IDHW #3
    • 4th IDHW
  • Shared Educational and Event Resources
    • General
    • Education of Consumers and Public
    • Education for Breeders
  • Peer Reviewed Research Articles
  • PUBLIC Logos and Style Guides
  • Finnish Breeding Strategy (JTO) documents (English Summary)
  • Norwegian Breeding Strategies - English Summaries
  • The Kennel Club Breed Health Conservation Plan

Product Groups

There are no results to display.

Media Categories

  • IPFD Videos
  • Brachycephalics
  • Behaviour and Training
  • Canine Genetics
  • Health and Welfare

Find results in...

Find results that contain...


Date Created

  • Start

    End


Last Updated

  • Start

    End


Filter by number of...

Joined

  • Start

    End


Group


AIM


MSN


Website URL


ICQ


Yahoo


Jabber


Skype


Region


Location


Country


Current Affiliation


Position / Title


Interests


I am participating in:


Expertise/Proficiencies


Other Information on Interests or Expertise


Specific Breed(s) of Interest


Breed Club Rep; Board Member or Breeding/ Health Committee member


Breed Club / Health Committee Name and URL


Theme attended at 3rd IDHW in Paris

Found 102 results

  1. English bulldogs have been in the spotlight of authorities and media for a long time. The breed has a striking appearance and is often mentioned when health issues in pedigree dogs related to their appearance are discussed. With this background and as a starting point the Swedish Kennel Club in collaboration with the Swedish Club for English bulldogs have recently launched a new breeding strategy for the breed. The strategy presents hands on advice for breeders on how to make visible progress over the coming five year period by focusing on the main health issues associated with the breed.
  2. This article is a summary we (IPFD) have created describing the issues, the dialogue and challenges around regulatory actions in the Netherlands as of June 2020. The issue is having a polarizing effect across stakeholder groups, and it is our belief that the best results for all dogs are to be achieved by collaborative efforts. IPFD also promotes the considerations of impacts on dogs, breeds, and people when programs are put in place, given the complex nature of issues of health and welfare. This article is a compilation of resources for those who are exploring the situation. Table Of Contents Key points of the situation and background from 2019 Dutch Kennel Club - Breeding Criteria Documentation (English) Stakeholder Responses DogWellNet Coverage and Dog Health Workshops Resources Kennel Club Programs Questions & Moving Forward... (also a good summary of major issues) Some key points: The government of the Netherlands has created a set of criteria about the conformation of short-muzzled dogs and regulations that prohibit breeding of any dog when one is of these is exceeded, regardless of the other criteria. Although the regulations apply to all breeders, as for other issues, pedigree dog breeders who register puppies with the national kennel club (Raad van Beheer, Dutch Kennel Club, DKC) are the most visible and traceable and there is an emphasis on the DKC to enact and enforce these guidelines. And it does not restrict ownership of these dogs or purchase and importation of dogs. Controversies and challenges include: In the 12 designated breeds, pedigreed dog breeders account for a very small proportion of puppies of these breeds being sold in the Netherlands; most are from non-pedigreed breeders and imports. How will the legislation help the majority of dogs? The 12 breeds: i.e., • Affenpinscher • Boston Terrier • English Bulldog • French Bulldog • Griffon Belge • Griffon Bruxellois • Petit Brabançon • Japanese Spaniel • King Charles Spaniel • Pug • Pekingese • Shih Tzu - although sharing some similarities in facial conformation do not have similar risks for Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome, based on available statistics. As stated by the DKC in their response to the proposed legislation: The government's criteria restricting breeding describe exaggerated conformations, which DKC agrees are not desirable and the DKC has concurred with almost all criteria and is supportive in monitoring the breeding stock of pedigree dogs. (See table in Breeding strategy proposal Dutch KC, below). However, the DKC does not agree with the breeding-prohibiting criterion of the Craniofacial Ratio (CFR), stating that, “This criterion would make it impossible to breed certain breeds while the prognostic value and the reproducibility of the CFR are being questioned among scientists.” The scientific evidence for the use of the CFR in the way proposed by the government and their experts is not robust for the breeds studied or should at least be subjected to further review. The government criteria may overemphasize only one aspect of the problems in some of these breeds. Most of the 12 breeds were not part of the key cited study. The DKC is now under pressure from the government and welfare critics and members of the show world for meeting government demands. The situation is being hotly debated through much of the pedigreed dog world and beyond, with some expressing the concern that this regulatory approach is defined in a way to eventually eliminate these breeds and may lead to further restrictions for other breeds. Unfortunately, there are some voices dismissing compelling evidence that there are health problems in certain breeds. It may be that groups who support, in general, attention to the health and welfare of brachychephalics, and have spoken in support of the legislation, may not have carefully considered the evidence or wider impacts. Some are worried that other counties may follow the lead of the Netherlands, without careful consideration. Background: Health and welfare management of brachycephalic dogs is the issue; there are implications are for all dogs and owners. The health and welfare of brachycephalic dogs is a highly complex situation - and yet current reactions and efforts tend to be rather narrow. Positions on various sides seem to becoming entrenched. When narrow or unilateral solutions are enacted without adequate participation of all stakeholders, conflict rather than collaboration or collective actions is often the result. The intensity in published statements and discussions online these days, sometimes extending to hostility, will not lead to an improvement in relations and certainly not to an improvement for the health and welfare of dogs. Responsibility lies with all stakeholders. Simple solutions to complex problems are unlikely to be effective and generally produce unintended consequences. For background and commentary on the recent situation in the Netherlands, please see Dr. Brenda Bonnett's Blog from August 2019, where concerns are expressed that the proposed legislation in the Netherlands was not likely to achieve its goals and the balanced report of the Dutch Kennel Club was presented: Brachycephalic dogs in the Netherlands Since then, the government of the Netherlands has enacted its regulations, to address what they consider to be a pressing need to protect the health and welfare of brachycephalic dogs. Unfortunately, the proposed solutions do not seem to have taken into account the full scientific evidence about the problems nor possible solutions; they may not tackle the full range of concerns; and the focus/enforcement on pedigree breeders may not achieve population-wide benefits for the majority of dogs. While these regulations are under the mandate of one country's government, there is the potential for more harm than good to come from these efforts, with broad implications for owners, dogs, and breeders, both within and beyond the Netherlands. Raad van Beheer (The Dutch Kennel Club, DKC) has translated information on the background and particulars of government regulations regarding breeding brachycephalic dogs - effective in the Netherlands as of May 18, 2020. Links to extensive coverage of the issues are located on the Fokken met kortsnuitige honden page on Raad van Beheer's website. Links to the eight documents that are are available in English (accessed June 2020) are listed below. Below are compiled resources on the 'discussions' and issues as well as resources, including those calling for inclusive and collaborative discussions. This resource page will be updated as the situation evolves. ...
  3. 2020... Hélène Denis from the Club du Bulldog Anglais shared the French Kennel Club's BREATH Protocol (BRachycephalic Exercise Aptitude Test for Health) - SCC Service Santé et Gestion des ressources génétiques
  4. The French Kennel Club - SOCIÉTÉ CENTRALE CANINE (SCC) - was founded in 1881 as a non-profit organization by dog fanciers aiming to replenish native dog breeds and to bring in and establish foreign ones as well. The Société Centrale Canine became soon the reference canine organization, being recognized as a public interest organization by decree of the Council of State in April 1914. The SCC is proud to be one of the founders of the FCI in 1911, together with the Kennel Clubs from Germany, Austria, Belgium and the Netherlands. Website: https://www.centrale-canine.fr/ Follow this link for the French Kennel Club Blog at DogWellNet
  5. For many years, Agria Animal Insurance, Sweden (Agria Djurförsäkring, Stockholm, Sweden) has supported veterinary research and provided statistics on diagnoses for health and life claims to Swedish breed clubs. Since 1995, Agria has collaborated with and funded researchers, from universities in Sweden and other countries, to produce over 35 scientific publications on descriptive and analytical research from their database. Since 2002, continuing their devotion to the health and well-being of dogs and their ongoing cooperation with the Swedish Kennel Club, Agria has produced information on both health care and life insurance claims in a format requested by and developed in consultation with breed clubs. The data and analysis are similar to those used in numerous refereed scientific publications. Initially, information from 1995-2002 was compiled on 80 breeds and Mixed Breeds on 11 CDs (see the Agria Dog Breed Profiles ). The CDs were given free to those breed clubs and remaining copies are available to the public. Subsequently, the material has been developed into an even more accessible form - the Updates. These are given to Swedish breed clubs, and the information is incorporated into various health programs. CONTENT UPDATED: 9-13-2019 Updates (2006-2011) for 122 breeds are available in our Downloads or links through our Pedigreed Dogs database (access is restricted to Advanced Members and IPFD Partners). Updates (2011-2016) for 188 breeds are also available in our Downloads. Read the first few pages of the 2011-2016 breed profile documents for information on the sources and methods utilized for calculations represented in the presented data. Links to the 2011-2016 Agria breed profiles will be added to the Pedigreed dogs database. You can view a list of breeds and available insurance data here: Agria breed profiles - 2006-2011 and 2011-2016 - DogWellNet.pdf Click the following link for an overview of the Agria Updated Dog Breed Statistics from 2006-2011 (Description; Background Information and Hints on Interpretation): Description and Background to the Agria Updated Dog Breed Statistics 2006-2011.pdf. This information is also included in the downloadable file for each breed. Download an FAQ document for the Agria Dog Breed Statistics here: Agria Dog Breed Statistics FAQs.pdf a.m. 9-13-2019 - PLEASE NOTE: the 2011-2016 Agria breed profile file links shown in the table below are currently available only by special permission. Stay tuned for further details regarding access! Or make a request to info@ipfdogs.com. Breed Name 2006 – 2011 (122 breeds) 2011-2016 (188 breeds) Affenpinscher: 2011-2016 Afghan Hound: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Airdale Terrier: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Akita: 2011-2016 Alaskan Husky: 2011-2016 Alaskan Malamute: 2011-2016 American Akita: 2011-2016 American Bulldogg: 2011-2016 American Cocker Spaniel: 2006-2011 2011-2016 American Staffordshire Terrier: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Australian Cattledog: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Australian Kelpie: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Australian Shepherd: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Australian Terrier: 2011-2016 Basenji: 2011-2016 Basset Artésien Normand: 2011-2016 Basset Fauve De Bretagne: 2011-2016 Basset Hound: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Beagle: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Bearded Collie: 2011-2016 Beauceron: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Bedlington Terrier: 2011-2016 Bernese Mountain Dog: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Bichon Frise: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Bichon Havanais: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Bolognese: 2011-2016 Border Collie: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Border Terrier: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Borzoi: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Boston Terrier: 2011-2016 Bouvier des Flandres: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Boxer: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Briard: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Brittany Dog: 2011-2016 Bull Terrier: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Bullmastiff: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Cairn Terrier: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Cane Corso: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Cardigan & Pembroke Welsh Corgi: 2011-2016 Cavalier King Charles Spaniel: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Chihuahua: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Chinese Crested: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Chow Chow: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Cocker Spaniel: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Collie Rough: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Collie Smooth: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Coton de Tuléar: 2011-2016 Curly Coated Retriever: 2011-2016 Dachshunds Miniature: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Dachshunds Standard: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Dalmatian: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Danish-Swedish Farmdog: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Dobermann: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Dogo Argentino: 2011-2016 Douge de Bordeaux: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Drever: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Dutch Shepherds: 2011-2016 East Siberian Laika: 2006-2011 2011-2016 English Bulldog: 2006-2011 2011-2016 English Pointer: 2011-2016 English Setter: 2006-2011 2011-2016 English Springer Spaniel: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Eurasian: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Finnish Hound: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Finnish Lapphund: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Finnish Spitz: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Flat Coated Retriever: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Fox Terriers: 2006-2011 2011-2016 French Bulldog: 2006-2011 2011-2016 German Hunting Terrier: 2006-2011 2011-2016 German Pointers: 2006-2011-long haired, 2006-2011-short haired, 2006-2011-wire haired 2011-2016 German Shepherd Dog: 2006-2011 2011-2016 German Spitz Klein: 2011-2016 German Spitz Mittel: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Golden Retriever: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Gordon Setter: 2011-2016 Great Dane: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Great Pyrenees: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Greater Swiss Mountain Dog: 2011-2016 Greyhound: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Griffons: 2011-2016 Groenendael: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Halleforshund: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Hamilton Hound: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Hovawart: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Hungarian Vizsla Shorthair: 2011-2016 Icelandic Sheepdog: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Irish Red Setter: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Irish Terrier: 2011-2016 Irish Wolfhound: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Italian Greyhound: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Jack Russell Terrier: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Japanese Chin: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Japanese Spitz: 2011-2016 Karelian Bear Dog: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Keeshond: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Kerry Blue Terrier: 2011-2016 King Charles Spaniel: 2011-2016 Kooiker Hound: 2011-2016 Kromfohrländer: 2011-2016 Kuvasz: 2011-2016 Labrador Retriever: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Lagotto Romagnolo: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Lakeland Terrier: 2011-2016 Lancashire Heeler: 2011-2016 Landseer: 2011-2016 Lapponian Herder: 2011-2016 Leonberger: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Lhasa Apso: 2011-2016 Löwchen: 2011-2016 Malinois: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Maltese: 2011-2016 Mastiff: 2011-2016 Miniature Bull Terrier: 2011-2016 Miniature Pinscher: 2011-2016 Mixed Breed: 2011-2016 Münsterländer Small: 2011-2016 Newfoundland: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Norfolk terrier: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Norrbottenspitz: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Norwegian Buhund: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Norwegian Elkhound Grey: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Norwegian Lundehund: 2011-2016 Norwich Terrier: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Old English Sheepdog: 2011-2016 Papillon: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Parson Russell Terrier: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Pekingese: 2011-2016 Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Phalene: 2011-2016 Pinscher: 2011-2016 Plott: 2011-2016 Polish Lowland Sheepdog: 2011-2016 Pomeranian: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Poodle Miniature: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Poodle Standard: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Poodle Toy: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Portuguese Water Dog: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Pug: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Puli: 2011-2016 Pumi: 2011-2016 Pyrenean Sheepdog: 2011-2016 Rhodesian Ridgeback: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Rottweiler: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Russian Toy: 2011-2016 Salukis: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Samoyed: 2011-2016 Schapendoes: 2011-2016 Schiller Hound: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Schipperke: 2011-2016 Schnauzers Giant: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Schnauzers Miniature: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Schnauzers Standard: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Scottish Deerhound: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Scottish Terrier: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Shar Pei: 2011-2016 Shetland Sheepdog: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Shiba: 2011-2016 Shih Tzu: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Siberian Husky: 2011-2016 Slovensky Kopov: 2011-2016 Smålands Hound: 2011-2016 Small Brabant Griffon: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Spanish Water Dog: 2006-2011 2011-2016 St Bernhard: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Stabyhoun: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Staffordshire Bull Terrier: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Swedish Elkhound: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Swedish Lapphund: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Swedish Vallhund: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Swedish White Elkhound: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Swiss Hounds: 2011-2016 Tervueren: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Tibetan Mastiff: 2011-2016 Tibetan Spaniel: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Tibetan Terrier: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Volpino Italiano: 2011-2016 Wachtelhund: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Weimaraner: 2011-2016 Welsh Springer Spaniel: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Welsh Terrier: 2006-2011 2011-2016 West Highland White Terrier: 2006-2011 2011-2016 West Siberian Laika: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Whippet: 2011-2016 White Swiss Shepherd Dog: 2006-2011 2011-2016 Yorkshire Terrier: 2006-2011 2011-2016
  6. On July 14th, 2016, I had the privilege of speaking with Dr. Paul McGreevy, BVSc, PhD, University of Sydney professor, researcher, veterinary specialist in behavioral medicine and expert in companion animal welfare. The complex issues affecting the welfare and behavior of purebred dogs is one area in which Dr. McGreevy focuses his research. Below are some of the topics that we discussed and an example is provided to illustrate each point. 1. The benefits of health practices differ among species. So, in one setting a health practice may be acceptable as the standard of care and in another banned. The procedure of tail docking illustrates this point well. In the book, Dilemmas in Animal Welfare, the authors discuss tail docking in general and state, "as the acute pain can be controlled…and the absence of a tail has seldom been shown to disadvantage the animals greatly, a utilitarian analysis focusing on direct effects might conclude tail docking to be an acceptable procedure where demonstrable and significant benefits are obtained." (p. 21) The modern pork operation docks tails to protect the pigs from cannibalism, a behavior that occurs in intensive rearing systems. In this case, the acute pain of tail docking benefits the herd as a whole by reducing biting injuries and infection. Of course, there is growing evidence that tail-biting can be reduced with environmental enrichment and optimal management, so the surgical approach in pig production may eventually come to an end. The American Veterinary Medical Association opposes tail docking in dogs performed for cosmetic purposes. Canine tail docking in the UK has been banned since 2006, with certain exceptions for working dogs, and additional restrictions relative to dog shows. However, the situation is not consistent across countries and in the UK further changes are being sought by The Kennel Club. More information on tail docking in the UK can be found on the British Veterinary Association's Policy position: tail docking of dogs. In the end, tail docking may be appropriate for certain species in specific situations while not appropriate in others. Overall, the inconsistencies in species' welfare-related recommendations may call into question the profession's integrity, as mentioned in the article "How might veterinarians do more for animal welfare?" 2. Studying animal welfare is challenging because it is at the intersection of the sciences and social sciences. As animal welfare scientists, it is our charge to focus on animal well-being and health, while at the same time adopting optimal practices that are feasible within the constraints of the management system. Most standardized approaches to animal welfare focus on the animal specifically, but not necessarily how obtainable the goals are for veterinarians, breeders, and producers. For example, The Five Freedoms, originally written in 1965, emphasize "avoidance of unnecessary suffering and the provision of needs", including protecting animals from disease/pain, thirst/hunger, discomfort, fear, and allowing them to express natural behaviors. Although never intended to provide a checklist or to be equally weighted, they have attracted some criticism for being too ambitious or simplistic. David Fraser's adapted model of animal welfare focuses on the intersection of an animal's health, affective states, and natural living. While both of the above models have been influential in the development of animal welfare science, their implementation is challenged by other factors — such as productivity and profitability, the animal caretaker's well being, and management feasibility. By adopting a more integrative approach, we can develop ways to improve animal welfare — making it more accessible to the public, veterinarians, breeders, and producers and at the same time enhancing business outcomes. 3. Veterinarians can improve the welfare of breeding dogs. A case example is the critical role veterinarians play when performing cesarean sections on dog breeds that cannot deliver naturally. For these breeds, their biological fitness is reliant on a veterinarian's ability to surgically deliver the puppies. This highlights the need for continued work between breeders and veterinarians because, in the case of cesareans, the fate of the breed is dependent on us. Our training allows us to help the individual dog but are we perpetuating genetic problems? One article used breed club data to determine the "Proportion of litters of purebred dogs born by caesarean section". For the Boston terrier, Bulldog, and French bulldog, the rates of cesarean section were greater than 80%. Cesarean sections give veterinarians the opportunity to work directly with breeder clients, but in doing so are we providing adequate breeding advice in the form of genetic counselling? Do veterinarians receive proper training to educate clients? Are we even involved in these discussions with clients? 4. There can be unintended consequences in advancing animal welfare. An article on the challenges associated with pedigree dog health, explains that although the incidence of inherited disease can be decreased through the use of genetic tests and screening, if fewer animals are then in the breeding population, this can lead to the unintended consequence of reduced genetic diversity. Reducing the breeding pool, could result in the inadvertent outcome of enhancing inherited disease. It raises the probable need for outcrossing to other breeds. In addition, some breeds may not have enough genetic diversity in their population to correct some of the challenges with inherited disease. This is described in "A genetic assessment of the English bulldog". The study cites the small founder population and artificial bottleneck as causes for the lack of diversity. Additionally, selection for certain traits can have unintended consequences. One study describes the causative mutation for short-tailed dogs as heterozygous in a variety of breeds. The genetic basis of bobtails is of interest to breeders because of the perceived need for tail docking in certain breeds. However, this defect was shown in the study to decrease litter size, likely due to early embryonic death of homozygous animals. As a result of this conversation, I saw additional angles to the breeding dog debate and Dr. McGreevy provided insightful challenges related to purebred dogs that sparked my interest about further perspectives on animal welfare. By looking at these, and other animal welfare-related complexities from multiple angles, veterinarians can be more proactive in leading animal welfare discussions. Reference: Appleby, M.C., Weary, D.M., Sandoe, P. (2014). Dilemmas in Animal Welfare. Oxfordshire, UK: CAB International. For more information about Dr. McGreevy's educational platform developed for veterinary students, see: One Welfare Brachycephalic Dog Scenario Overview article on the One Welfare Platform Additionally, see the article published on welfare educational opportunities in the U.S. for additional ideas on how to get more involved in thinking about animal welfare. Photo source: http://www.hillspet.com/HillsPetUS/v1/portal/en/us/locale/img/about_us/HP_about_animalwelfare_section1_md.jpg
  7. Congratulations to our Partners and Collaborators at Société Centrale Canine (SCC)- The French Kennel Club. Having had the privilege to visit their offices and their amazing library, many times, I am happy today to share links to their wonderful online library of images. (Note: the images here are screen captures... the actual images online of even higher quality.) See La Photothéque Old and new.... dog shows, events, military history, cultural treasures, dog breeds... and more. The catalogs include thousands of images which can be purchased. Just browsing through them will remind you of the diversity of ways in which we interact with dogs... ways in which they enrich our lives. In the face of criticism of purebred dogs a collection like this can serve to educate others and remind us that the world of purebred dogs involves so much more than conformation dog shows. These still images enforce the the link between form and function - especially in categories like "Contest of Use" which includes e.g. water rescue, tracking, utility search, and more. Thank you to the SCC for sharing this wonderful resource! Championnat de France de chiens de sauvetage en mer 2012
  8. I was honored to address the French Bulldog Club of America at their National Specialty in Louisville, KY on October 31st, 2018. The invitation came from the Health & Genetics Committee of the French Bull Dog Club of America (FBDCA). This invitation was prompted by my presentation on the IPFD Harmonization of Genetic Testing initiative at the AKC-CHF Health Conference in St. Louis in August 2017. Jan Grebe, Calvin Dykes and the others on the Committee stressed that the "club is dedicated to Frenchie health, and the harmonization project will be an invaluable resource for breeders". The final presentation, following discussions with the committee, reflected various issues impacting the breed - and I complement the FBDCA on their interest in health and welfare of their breed and in both a national and international perspective. French Bulldogs are challenged by issues including alarming increase in numbers, health concerns related to the brachycephalic condition and scrutiny by veterinary and regulatory groups throughout the world. The FBDCA video-taped the presentation and we have made this available here. It was quite an experience to be in a hotel with about 300 French Bulldogs. The incredible commitment and attachment that Frenchie owners have for these dogs was very evident. I was excited to see information and videos on the increased interest in performance activities for this breed. What a great way to identify and highlight those dogs who are healthy and active. See other relevant resources on brachycephalic issues internationally and coverage of these issues from the 3rd International Dog Health Workshop (IDHW) in our discussion paper. More international actions for health and welfare will undoubtedly be forthcoming following the 4th IDHW in May, in the UK.
  9. An article in The Canine Chronicle October, 2019, by Caroline Coile, is entitled: When 23 and Me Has Gone to the Dogs. PDF-Reprint version It is a summary of some of the discussions and presentations at the 2019 AKC CHF National Parent Club Canine Health Conference. I have already written a blog on my experiences speaking and participating at that meeting: AKC-CHF SYMPOSIUM: Harmonization of Genetic Testing and Breed-Specific Resources, where I cover some of the same ground at Ms. Coile. In that blog, I described the challenges voiced by breed club health committee reps, reflected in the questions they asked during the panel discussions. I said, for example: "It is not surprising that you are confused and frustrated...the world of genetic testing IS confusing and frustrating!" The worst challenges in communication and understanding have arisen, at least to some extent, by a combination of these factors: A very fast progression from hesitancy to mass acceptance of genetic testing as the ultimate measure of health and disease to inform breeding decisions. Driven by, e.g.: The 'Social Phenomena' and marketing of tests Direct-to-Consumer (see my talk at the American Veterinary Association). The underlying desire for absolute, straight-forward, black-and-white, simple answers to complex situations. And hampered by, e.g.: Lack of the full, key information for properly integrating genetic testing into best breeding practices. This lack due to, e.g.: Overemphasis of research on discovery of new genetic associations compared to study of clinical validity and ultimate utility of genetic tests relative to actual disease occurrence in the populations to which they will be applied. Rapid commercialization and offering of tests without anywhere near the level of validation and assessment of quality that is demanded for genetic tests in the human sphere and for virtually all other sorts of tests used in veterinary medicine. Inadequate availability of informed genetic counseling - with the genetic counselors challenged by the situations described above. Many genetic test providers providing full results on the plethora of tests and trusting consumers to be able to access counseling and/or figure it out themselves. An important aspect of this emphasis on genetic testing, mentioned in the Coile article is that, with this rush to genetic testing, there is a tendency to ignore or reduce the emphasis on the big picture of health in a breed, and to sometimes abandon or neglect health strategies and breeding decisions based on them. This I discuss in basically all my talks, e.g., in a presentation to the French Bull Dog Club of America in 2018. So - challenges, challenges, challenges - for genetic testing from research to application and from validity and quality issues to understanding and communication of best practices for all stakeholders and consumers. However, let's not 'throw the baby out with the bathwater'. Genetic testing has already supported health and breeding decisions, especially for simple recessive, fully-penetrant conditions. Unfortunately, these are the 'low-hanging fruit' for scientific discovery, and much attention has been paid to them. They are often rare conditions, and although detection and health strategies for them are very important to the limited number of dogs/lines affected, they may not be the most important conditions for the breed. The most common and important conditions, as also stated in the Coile article, are much more complex. Great things are possible with genetic testing. Whole genome analysis will offer even more potential to help animals and people. However, it looks like genomic testing will also be implemented in spite of great gaps in our understanding of what it means and how to apply it. This video from the human side offers some startling information that should increase our concern (see Strategic Planning Workshop: Genomics in Medicine). It is important to also focus on the good work being done to support stakeholders in dog health. Coile mentions the OFA and AKC-CHF is busy with many endeavours (including supporting IPFD). A great example is the Webinar by Joan Coates tomorrow (Thursday 16 October) on the topic of the hour - DM. Dr. Coates' comments at the Parent Club Symposium were important and it is great that they are being expanded to a Webinar. It is expected that she will clarify the DM-testing benefits and challenges, but we cannot kid ourselves that it can rectify the already-entrenched attitudes about DM in specific and genetic testing in general among the public. Hope is also offered by the existing and continuing developments by IPFD, on DogWellNet.com, and produced in collaboration of a wide network of international collaborators, although dependent on funding and further support. These include (and see my CHF talk): The Harmonization of Genetic Testing for Dogs (HGTD) - catalog on genetic test providers (GTPs) and tests (see the HGTD on DogWellNet.com). Initiative to clarify which tests are being offered specifically as targeted, relevant for a breed; collating information on benefits and challenges of panel testing vs. a breed-specific approach. Working Groups from the 4th International Dog Health Workshop (see article on post workshop genetics theme) on: A comprehensive matrix of the test discovery-commercialization-application pathway . Details on criteria need to provide validation at each step. Aspects of laboratory quality and best practices for GTPs. The potential for enhanced Proficiency Testing. Development of an Expert Panel application to assess and provide collective opinion on key issues about tests and testing. The Big Picture: developing the Heath Strategies Database for Dogs (HSDD), that will provide an interactive resource by breed and condition for all diseases/conditions considered important in health strategies from international and local kennel clubs and breed organizations, to include but not be limited those for which a genetic test is available. A structure for an Globally Relevant International Health Profile to summarize the state of health for breeds. Working together, we can improve our ability to make the best decisions for dogs and capitalize on the potential tools and strategies available.
  10. Following on from my blog on the Seminar for the FBDCA we are thrilled to find that the French Bulldog Club of England has shared their Breed Health and Conservation Plan (BHCP). Link here; PDF attached, below. These plans are being assembled by the health team at The Kennel Club, until recently spearheaded by Katy Evans (now the Jane H. Booker Chair in Canine Genetics at The Seeing Eye in the USA). Similar to coverage in my talk (video link here), the focus is very broad in the BHCP and makes clear the challenges ahead for this breed, internationally. The BHCP incorporates statistics from Sweden and Britain, from our IPFD Partners Agria Pet Insurance/Agria Djurförsäkring and VetCompass. Work like the BHCPs in the UK, Breed-specific Breeding Strategies from Sweden (RAS) and Finland (JTO) and others will be incorporated into our new development, the IPFD Health Strategy Database for Dogs (HSDD) coming soon. Then we will be able to provide an interactive resource where 'all' health information can be accessed to inform the great efforts being made by groups throughout the world. Congrats and thanks to The KC and the French Bulldog Club of England. breed_health_and_conservation_plan_-_french_bulldog_final__1_.pdf Blog Disclaimer The contents of this blog are for informational purposes only and represent the opinion of the author(s), and not that of the International Partnership for Dogs (IPFD). This is not intended to be a substitute for professional, expert or veterinarian advice, diagnosis, or treatment. We do not recommend or endorse any specific tests, providers, products, procedures, opinions, or other information that may be mentioned on, or linked to from this blog.
  11. IPFD friend and collaborator Dr. Jerold Bell, Adjunct Professor Tufts University, and Chair of the Hereditary Disease Committee of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association, has recently circulated a letter about DM testing in French Bulldogs (attached below). According to his research and communication with international neurologists there has never been a confirmed case of DM in this breed, and yet the test is recommended in several countries. French Bulldogs do have spinal problems, but these are generally due to widespread prevalence of vetebral abnormalities and not DM. Testing - and then perhaps eliminating dogs from the breeding stock based on test results - is not a beneficial strategy for the population. Part of the problem of wrongly recommended tests may related to the unfortunate use of language for some genetic tests. Results of allele frequencies may be reported as 'clear', 'carrier', or 'affected'. In fact, 'affected' in this case means 'genetically affected' and may or may not relate to clinical disease, as in the case of DM in French Bulldogs, at least as far as we know. Discussions like these are crucially needed as part of better genetic counselling. See further discussion on this issue in my talk to the American Veterinary Medical Association. Here is the letter from Dr. Bell: Degenerative Myelopathy Does NOT Occur in French Bulldogs.pdf
  12. A Continuing and Sustainable Development The International Partnership for Dogs (IPFD) and DogWellNet.com have come into being following a long history of efforts by many stakeholders to address dog health and well-being. An abbreviated timeline of key developments will highlight the complexity of issues addressed by the IPFD and DogWellNet and will list some of the many supporters and collaborators that have contributed directly or indirectly to this important work. Development was inaugurated under the patronage of the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI). The major contributors (in-kind and funding) since 2011 have been, chronologically, the Agria Animal Insurance-Swedish Kennel Club Research Fund, the Swedish Kennel Club (SKK), and the FCI; as well as, other national kennel clubs (from Finland, The UK, France, Germany, Ireland, and the USA (AKC)). This document presents an historical background to the work and current status. Timeline: Understanding the Sequence of Development 1994-Present - Historical Underpinning: Collaborative work to develop and use the Agria Pet Insurance Database (Agria) to provide breed-specific statistics on disease and death in dogs. Partnership with Swedish Kennel Club (SKK); material used by all Swedish breed clubs to develop breed-specific breeding strategy document (RAS); also used in support Breed Specific Instructions for judges program. Breed Updates also used in Denmark and Norway. Many international presentations and workshops to various stakeholder groups: breeders, breed clubs and health committees, international veterinary and scientific congresses, human-animal interaction meetings, dog judges, government welfare committees in addition to numerous publications in refereed scientific journals. Leading national kennel clubs (KCs) and other stakeholders, e.g., Agria Animal Insurance, Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI), the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA), and many professional, welfare, academic and other organizations are doing their own work on issues of health, well-being, and welfare of dogs. It is becoming increasingly apparent that many important issues are truly international in nature, and many of these groups increase collaborations with others. From 2008... Kennel clubs (KCs) everywhere are under pressure to improve and expand activities under almost all areas of their mandate (e.g. breeding, legislation, information technology, etc.). Two global examples: Media and societal pressure about health, well-being, and welfare in dogs Need to be more proactive in addressing issues and highlighting positives of dogs, in general, purebred dogs and shows/performance and breeding Regulatory issues, governments, etc., e.g. dangerous dog legislation, restrictions; guidelines for dog breeders (especially commercial) Similar efforts in many countries; poor synthesis of existing information, decisions not always evidence-based KCs, breeders and other stakeholders need improved access to existing information and resources Many stakeholders/KCs have a lot to share, however, many resources are difficult to locate and language may pose difficulties. Once information is found or assembled, there is a need for synthesis and expert evaluation of that information to promote guidance- and evidence-based decision making. Issues affecting the health and welfare of dogs are global in scope, therefore international collaboration and co-operation are needed. Fall 2011: Dr. Brenda Bonnett makes a proposal to develop a canine health and welfare information network, which is funded by Agria-SKC Research Foundation, to: Capitalize on the strengths of the international cynological community through enhanced sharing of information and expertise and facilitation of on-going collaboration Present a ‘united front’ (all KCs/stakeholders together for the good of dogs) Build a sustainable model to accomplish goals/address needs. Specifically: Create an Organization (i.e. The International Partnership for Dogs (originally 'Sharing and Caring for Dogs)) that will oversee development of the internet resource (DogWellNet.com). This will facilitate partnerships and sharing of costs for long term functionality. Initially to be organized under the direction of the SKK due to its extensive experience with Information Technology (IT) development and a willingness to commit further resources to this development. However, other partners will be a key part of the development. Enhance distribution of information to underpin decision-making Develop and support international partnerships Provide a forum for informed discussion by stakeholder experts AND TO PRESENT THIS INITIATIVE AS PART OF THE DOG HEALTH WORKSHOP IN STOCKHOLM, JUNE 2012 AS UNDERPINNING DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL PLATFORMS. The Agria-SKC Research Foundations directs project team to first meet with FCI, as a globally recognized leader in cynology, to determine if they are willing and able to take a leadership role in the development of this resource. Spring 2012 - December 2013: Work with/support from FCI: Presentation of background and proposed structure for the information network, at that time called Sharing and Caring for Dogs, to the FCI General Committee (GC) in Vienna. The GC decides the initiative is relevant and refers the project to the Working Group 2012 (originally called Back to the Standards). The working group presents a proposal to the GC in October 2012. (No decision from the FCI, at that time) Spring 2013: At the end of March 2013, the GC allocated funds for a contract with an IT company to help further define the platform for the Information Network and to engage Dr. Bonnett to organize, support and summarize that work. This work was overseen by Ulf Uddman of the SKK. Presentation on the initiative to the General Assembly in Budapest in May. Summer 2013: FCI allocates further funds to continue development and authorizes Project Team to engage other potential partners. Fall 2013: Formal proposal submitted to the GC and presentation made (The FCI decides not to take primary responsibility for this development.) Parallel Development: In June 2012, the Dog Health Workshop occurred in Sweden. (Organized by SKK with other partners, funded by SKK and other sponsors) Over 20 countries were represented by 120 geneticists, researchers, veterinarians, dog breeders, cynologists (many from FCI), judges, welfare organizations, government/regulatory representatives, and more. The Sharing and Caring initiative and design was seen as an appropriate platform to facilitate the international collaboration and distribution of knowledge, expertise and experience that all agreed was crucial in order to address many issues related to health and well-being of dogs at a global level. In the final summary session, the participants collectively agreed that there was a need for a collaborative structure, i.e. a Foundation/Organization that would function to bring together stakeholders in dog health and well-being. Representatives of FCI, The Kennel Club (i.e., Steve Dean, Chairman) and various FCI member KCs (e.g. all Nordic clubs and Germany) indicated that they supported and were willing to spearhead the development and establishment of this Organization. As the needs/desired initiatives identified by the many stakeholders were very similar to the work started with Agria-SKC and with FCI it was, essentially, decided to await developments on that front rather than possibly duplicating efforts. Project Team (2012-2013): FCI and SKK/Agria-SKK Research Fund supports ongoing development. Many experts volunteer time and expertise. Discussions ongoing with other potential partners (other KCs, etc.) (who self-fund to attend meetings and support experts and staff to provide information and expertise), including The Kennel Club (UK), and the national KCs of Sweden, Norway, France, Germany, and Finland, among others. December 2013 - Spring 2014: Funding provided by Founding Partners to support basic web development by Dr. Brenda Bonnett, together with Topshare (IT company in The Netherlands), Continued meetings and communication with other national KCs to refine possible structure and function of the IPFD June 2014: Confirmation of Commitment by the Founding Partners: The national KCs of Sweden, Finland, France, Germany, Norway, The KC (UK), The Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (USA), and the Agria-SKK Research Fund. August 2014: The first meeting of the Board of the International Partnership for Dogs was held Thursday 28th August at the Kennel Club in London. The Board is comprised of Pekka Olson (Chair, Sweden), Caroline Kisko (Vice Chair, UK ), Eddie Dziuk (USA), Peter Friedrich (Germany), Jean-Pierre Genevois (France), Patricia Olson (USA), Kirsi Sainio (Finland). Brenda Bonnett (Canada) is the Chief Executive Officer and Ulf Uddman (Sweden) is the Chief Financial Officer. See brief curriculum vitae for the current IPFD Board here. Fall 2014: Engagement of further Initiating Partners (e.g. Irish Kennel Club); continued development of DogWellNet.com. FCI maintains Founding Patron status. Cooperation with the German Kennel Club (VDH) on plans for the 2nd International Dog Health Workshop 2015: Launch of DogWellNet.com at the 2nd International Dog Health Workshop in Dortmund, Germany. The American Kennel Club joins as an Initiating Partner; Société Centrale Canine (French Kennel Club) agrees to host 3rd IDHW. 2016: Organization of the IPFD 3rd International Dog Health Workshop together with host Société Centrale Canine (French Kennel Club) Launch of the Harmonization of Genetic Testing for Dogs initiative, including engagement of key leadership sponsors and international experts First issue of DogWellNet Digest - a collection of the latest news and highlights from IPFD/DogWellNet.com Launch of IPFD Summer Student projects with an outstanding veterinary student from Colorado State University Expanded our Breed Database, engaged breed clubs from numerous countries, health representatives, and experts in providing new content and expanding existing content DogWellNet.com serves as the hub for international efforts on various Hot Topics, including health and welfare in brachycephalic dogs, cross-breeding for health, and highlights and resources from various countries. 2017: Co-hosted the 3rd International Dog Health Workshop (IDHW) with the French Kennel Club (SCC) in Paris in April Engagement of first 17 Leadership Sponsor Genetic Test Providers/Labs for the Harmonization of Genetic Testing for Dogs (HGTD) initiative; HGTD online resource enters Beta Testing phase. Our Collaborating Partner, Canine Genetics and Epidemiology, publishes IPFD paper: Moving from information and collaboration to action: report from the 3rd International Dog Health Workshop, Paris in April 2017. Second IPFD Summer Student project grows out of the 3rd IDHW, addressing issues of antibiotic resistance. 2018: Launch of Harmonization of Genetic Testing for Dogs (HGTD) Quality Testing Database Engagement of additional HGTD initiative Leadership Sponsor Genetic Test Providers/Labs IPFD Initiating Partner, the AKC, changes its status to a Sponsor of IPFD's Harmonization of Genetic Testing for Dogs Initiative. Planning continues for the 4th International Dog Health Workshop (IDHW) in the UK in 2019, co-hosted by the UK Kennel Club. 2019: The Canadian Kennel Club (CKC) joins IPFD as Contributing Partner Raad van Beheer (The Dutch Kennel Club (DKC)) joins IPFD as Contributing Partner The World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) changes its status to IPFD Partner Collaborators IPFD and The Kennel Club co-host the 4th International Dog Health Workshop (IDHW) in Windsor, UK.
  13. IKFB: French Bulldog Club (Germany) - Walking test for French Bulldog, Pugs and English Bulldogs Also see: DWN's article on the IKFB - Dr. Anne Posthoff, the president of the German International Club for French Bulldogs, explains why the rules for breeding French Bulldogs in Germany are amongst the strictest in the world. Hot Topics - Brachycephalics, archive - DWN and Extremes of Conformation - Brachycephalics
  14. Packer RMA, O’Neill DG, Fletcher F, Farnworth MJ (2019) Great expectations, inconvenient truths, and the paradoxes of the dog-owner relationship for owners of brachycephalic dogs. PLoS ONE 14(7): e0219918. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0219918 Abstract Popularity of brachycephalic (flat-faced) dog breeds is increasing internationally despite well-documented intrinsic health and welfare problems associated with their conformation. Given this apparent paradox, greater understanding of the expectations and reality for brachycephalic dog owners and factors driving the dog-owner bond are needed. This study reports a large-scale online survey with valid responses from 2168 owners of brachycephalic dogs (Pugs: n = 789, median age of dogs 2.5 years; French Bulldog: n = 741, median age 2.0 years; Bulldogs: n = 638, median age 2.5 years). The most common owner-reported disorders in their dogs were allergies, corneal ulcers, skin fold infections and Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome (BOAS). One-fifth (19.9%) of owners reported that their dog had undergone at least one conformation-related surgery, 36.5% of dogs were reported with a problem with heat regulation, and 17.9% with problems breathing. Despite awareness of their dog’s health issues, 70.9% owners considered their dog to be in very good health or the best health possible. Paradoxically, just 6.8% of owners considered their dog to be less healthy than average for their breed. Dog owner-relationships were extremely strong across all three breeds. Emotional closeness to their dog was highest for owners of Pugs, female owners, and owners with no children in the household. Ownership of brachycephalic dog breeds is a complex phenomenon, characterised by extremely strong dog-owner relationships and unrealistic perceptions of good health set against high levels of disease in relatively young dogs. Perceptual errors in owner beliefs appear to exist between brachycephalic owner perspectives of their own dog’s health versus the health of the rest of their breed, which may be fuelled by cognitive dissonance processes. These novel data improve our understanding of the cognitive processes and relationships that facilitate the rising popularity of breeds that paradoxically are affected by high levels of conformation-related morbidity. Comment: Breeder View This study may be of interest to clubs or breeders who are responsible for educating buyers regarding health concerns present in Pugs, Bulldogs and French Bulldogs. Value exists in educating potential owners of these breeds as to health concerns that may impact owner experiences with their dogs over a given dog's lifetime. The reality is, the dog's ages represented in this survey may have had a some influence on owner assessments of costs of veterinary care and of owner perceptions of time and resources dedicated to caring for their dog - costs and perceptions that may change as their dog ages. It was not entirely clear to me the source of dogs whose owners participated in this survey - in other words from whom were the dogs purchased - show breeders (health tested/conformation evaluated dogs) or other sources. The references listed in this research provide perspective. DogWellNet has collected a number of resources that address the Brachycephalic Issue. The IPFD's Dog Health Workshops have included plenary talks from the Extremes of Conformation theme in which stakeholder concerns over management of health and welfare in brachycephalic breeds and actions to improve matters are addressed. Related article: JAVMA: Owners of brachycephalic dogs are a complicated lot Posted Oct. 9, 2019 https://www.avma.org/News/JAVMANews/Pages/191101h.aspx This article is an easy read and summarizes the study.
  15. Canine Genetics and Epidemiology (2018) O'Neill, D G and Baral, L and Church, D B and Brodbelt, D C and Packer, R M A (2018) Demography and disorders of the French Bulldog population under primary veterinary care in the UK in 2013. Canine Genetics and Epidemiology, 5 (3).
  16. 2020... The Brachycephalic Working Group has posted resources on Bulldogs, French Bulldogs & Pugs... VetCompass developed infographics, which summarise brachycephalic breed research... What's available? Bulldogs in the UK: Facing up to some challenges + full paper; French Bulldogs: Soaring UK popularity + full paper; Pugs: Weighing up health priorities + full paper
  17. 2019 - UK - February 4th from The Kennel Club And Cambridge We are thrilled to read news about a Scheme launched to improve health of French Bulldogs, Pugs and Bulldogs... "A new screening scheme aims to provide breeders of French Bulldogs, Pugs and Bulldogs with more information about the health of their dogs, helping them reduce the risk of breeding puppies with potentially serious breathing problems." See more on the scheme at The University of Cambridge and The Kennel Club's website...
  18. Following discussions at the August 2019 AKC Canine Health Foundation National Parent Club Canine Health Conference, DogWellNet.com's collaborators at AKC-CHF hosted a webinar available for viewing at VetVine, Canine Degenerative Myelopathy: From Gene Mutation Discovery to Clinical Trials (free VetVine registration required). Dr. Joan Coates' presentation (free VetVine registration required) gave a detailed overview of the disease and current research, including veterinary and human applications. In this excellent overview, parts of the presentation were somewhat technical – digestible to a veterinarian or researcher level audience – but nonetheless also of interest to breeders. The application side of this test, i.e. what results mean and how the test should be used to support breeding decisions, is particularly complex, and the situation is very different in various breeds. This complicates the situation for owners and breeders in terms of deciding whether this highly-marketed test is needed, and in interpretation of the results. Dr. Coates mentioned that, in the paper by Jonas Donner and colleagues: Frequency and distribution of 152 genetic disease variants in over 100,000 mixed breed and purebred dogs, Degenerative Myelopathy is the most common 'disease'. [See statistics: Rank 1: Allelle frequency]. BUT, it is really the most commonly tested for disease – for various reasons. We do not have great evidence on the actual prevalence of the condition across or within breeds. Challenges - Confusion over interpretation and application of DNA tests within the breed and veterinary communities is not unique to DM. Working groups coming out of the genetic theme at the 4th IDHW are underway to address validation issues in genetic testing. Stay tuned to DogWellNet.com, as we will be providing more information in the near future. The DNA testing topic is being addressed by IPFD's partners, collaborators and team through development and implementation of tools such as the HGTD as well as covered in Themes work done at the IPFD's International Dog Health Workshops, the IPFD CEO's outreach presentations, articles and blogs* - work done in collaboration with individuals and groups of multidisciplinary stakeholders, all of whom share the aim to improve the health and welfare of dogs. Additional information... Talks & Blogs - Genetic Testing Recently, Brenda Bonnett blogged about challenges faced by breed clubs related to applying results of this particular DNA test (DM) to breed management in Concern about genetic testing Degenerative Myelopathy (DM) in French Bulldogs. The blog includes a link to a letter, Degenerative Myelopathy Does NOT Occur in French Bulldogs that IPFD collaborator Dr. Jerold Bell circulated to add to the discussion/understanding of DM testing in the French Bulldog breed. The current state of affairs for canine genetic testing development and distribution, along with comments on appropriate interpretation and application of DNA tests to improve health of dogs, are discussed In Brenda Bonnett's talk to AVMA in August 2019: Genetic Testing to Improve Canine Health: The Big Picture & the Blog covering the AVMA conference. A presentation Harmonization of Genetic Testing and Breed-Specific Resources was given at the AKC-CHF Parent Club Health Symposium. Brenda’s Blog offers further discussion. RELATED: Video: Canine Degenerative Myelopathy - Stages of Disease "Veterinary neurology expert Dr. Joan Coates, DVM, MS, DACVIM (Neurology) discusses the progressive nature of canine degenerative myelopathy and provides examples of affected dogs in the various stages of progression. Learn more on this topic and view the entire presentation On Demand.
  19. Vincent Mayousse1,3,5*, Loïc Desquilbet2, Aurélien Jeandel1,4 and Stéphane Blot1,3,5 Mayousse et al. BMC Veterinary Research (2017) 13:212 DOI 10.1186/s12917-017-1132-2 Available online at Biomed Central: https://bmcvetres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12917-017-1132-2 Prevalence of neurological disorders in French bulldog: a retrospective study of 343 cases (2002–2016) Abstract Background: French Bulldog (FB) has significantly gained in popularity over the last few years, and seems to be frequently affected by various neurological conditions. The purpose of this retrospective study was to report the prevalences of neurological diseases in a large population of FB, presented with neurological signs between 2002 and 2016, and for which a definitive diagnosis was established. A secondary objective was to identify epidemiological characteristics regarding specific diseases in this singular breed.
  20. Assessment of welfare and brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome signs in young, breeding age French Bulldogs and Pugs, using owner questionnaire, physical examination and walk tests Authors: Aromaa, M; Lilja-Maula, L; Rajamäki, MM Source: Animal Welfare, Volume 28, Number 3, August 2019, pp. 287-298(12) Publisher: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare DOI: https://doi.org/10.7120/09627286.28.3.287 https://www.ingentaconnect.com/contentone/ufaw/aw/2019/00000028/00000003/art00005# (Internal) Assessment of welfare and brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome signs in young, breeding age French Bulldogs and Pugs, using owner questionnaire, physical examination and walk tests.pdf Study based on Finnish data... Publication date: August 1, 2019 BOAS signs limit the daily activities of dogs - walk tests performance appears to be a more accurate reflection of tested dog's exercise tolerance than owner's perceptions. Excerpts... "Only four out of 95 French Bulldog and Pug owners reported that the BOAS signs limited the daily activities of their dogs. However, according to the physical, examination-based veterinary BOAS grading, 31/95 of the dogs had moderate to severe BOAS signs. In both breeds, the more severely affected dogs performed both exercise tests more poorly than those with no or mild BOAS signs. The longer exercise, namely the 1,000-m test, seemed slightly better able at differentiating between affected dogs and less affected ones. The results of this study further support the use of exercise tests as an important part of the breeding selection in French Bulldogs and Pugs. By influencing the breed standards set by Kennel Clubs and by using breeding selection tools, the harmful impacts of brachycephaly can be diminished." "By combining information from the physical BOAS assessment, namely the functional BOAS scale, nostril stenosis and exercise capacity, the breeder has the opportunity to make responsible breeding decisions related to BOAS."
  21. Love is Blind is a joint initiative of the Australian Veterinary Association and the RSPCA: "We’re raising public awareness about the animal welfare problems caused by exaggerated physical features such as brachycephaly, short limbs and excessive skin wrinkling, and how these problems can be prevented." This campaign stresses many of the issues in international work being presented on DogWellNet.com and the work - building on previous Workshops - that will happen at the imminent 4th International Dog Health Workshop (IDHW), in Windsor, UK, 30 May - 01 June, 2019. Including: The challenges of the brachycephalic breeds need to be understood by current AND future owners, breeders, veterinarians, kennel and breed clubs and other stakeholders, All these groups need to work together for the benefit of individual dogs and the breeds. The material suggests actions needed to be taken by each of these groups, including attention to sourcing of dogs, breeding, showing and more. Resources: See the Australian Love is Blind homepage for links to material, including several videos explaining the increased susceptibility of these dogs to heat and providing practical advice for owners. We have recently posted on Facebook a video entitled 'The Purebred Crisis' that describes this campaign, interviews veterinarians, owners and a breeder-judge. This video highlights the very different attitudes and perceptions for various individuals. It is this variation in opinion and approach to these dogs that complicates efforts to improve health and welfare in these breeds. I have discussed this in previous blogs. There is no question that people are attracted and deeply attached to these dogs that have, as the Aussies say, "squishy faces", and that they have delightful personalities. However, it is also clear that some owners do not realize the health and welfare challenges in these breeds. One of the themes at the 4th IDHW is effective communication, and we need to use all available tools and knowledge from experts in order to change human behaviour - to not only educate people but also to encourage collaboration. See more in Brenda's blogs, including: French Bulldog Health Seminar October 2018 Breeding: A Moral Choice? and: 4th International Dog Health Workshop Pre-Meeting Resources, for example: 4th IDHW Theme #5: Exaggerations and Extremes in Dog Conformation And this previous post on DogWellnet.com: Love is Blind - Dr Philip Moses
  22. Club du Bouledogue Français CBF ACTION FOR THE HEALTH AND WELL-BEING OF THE FRENCH BULLDOG CURRENT SITUATION AND PROSPECTS See the article prepared for DogWellNet on the work of the French Bulldog Club for maintaining the health and well-being of the breed. This article was validated by the committee of the association at its meeting of November 27, 2016.
  23. The Finnish Kennel Club (FKC) has finished the protocol and the instructions for fitness (walk) testing of breeding dogs in brachycephalic breeds. The test is similar to the one used by the Dutch Kennel Club. Finnish test instructions have been developed by veterinarians doing research on BOAS. Their results concerning the Bulldog have already been published. The researchers are still continuing their research and testing Pugs and French Bulldogs, whose results will be published later. According to the Finnish guidelines, a dog gets an approved walk test result if he/she walks 1000 meters in 12 minutes or less, and recovers sufficiently from the walk within the recovery time. In the future, it is also possible to have different time limits for different breeds. The test result is failed if The dog is, based on the veterinarian’s initial examination, showing signs of serious respiratory symptoms (including also severe hyperthermia). The supervising veterinarian interrupts the test due to the dog’s serious respiratory symptoms. The dog is not able to successfully complete the test and/or recover from it sufficiently within the required time. The FKC arranged the first pilot test in February, and the second pilot will be arranged in May. Also orientation for veterinarians will be held at that second pilot. After that, breed clubs are able to arrange the tests by their own. The tests have to be carried out in accordance with the FKC's Guideline for walk tests, in order to get the test result recorded in the FKC breeding database. The FKC is following the development and use of different tests in other countries. It is also having close collaboration with the other Nordic Kennel Clubs on this subject. The aim is, in the long run, and with the help of accumulated experience, to develop the test further, to be as appropriate as possible. UPDATED 7-15-2019 All the information on the Finnish walk test can be found here. "Walk test The walk test is meant for short-muzzled (brachycephalic) breeds that have symptoms caused by upper respiratory tract disorders. These breeds include Pug, English Bulldog and French Bulldog. The dog's exercise tolerance and the ability to breathe normally are evaluated in the walk test and the clinical examination included in it. In the walk test, the dog must walk a certain distance in a defined maximum time and recover from the exercise within a defined time frame."
×
×
  • Create New...

Important Information

By using this site, you agree to our Terms of Use.