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Found 17 results

  1. IPFD and the Canine Health Summit Feb 2021 by Embark Veterinary This Article provides links to resources on DogWellNet and from our partners to support panel discussions that are part of the 1st Annual Canine Health Summit hosted by Embark and the Westminster Kennel Club. For 2021, the event is designed to provide expert content and discussion to dog breeders and all dog enthusiasts, via a virtual conference format. IPFD is involved in 2 live panel discussions (see relevant links and references further below): 1. A Breeder’s Perspective on Canine Health, featuring Dr. Brenda Bonnett (CEO IPFD), Dr. Bruce Barrett, Ms. Pat Hastings, and Dr. Marty Greer (IPFD Board Member). 2. Population Management and Diversity, featuring Dr. Sophie Liu, Dr. Margret Casal, Mrs. Aimee Llewellyn-Zaidi (IPFD), Dr. Joshua Stern, and Dr. Adam Boyko Go to the Videos
  2. This article talks about two common terms used in dog breeding, and as part of strategies for impacting genetic diversity. Though sometimes used interchangeably, and used to mean multiple different practices, understanding the differences in the terms and the potential application in breeding programs is one tool dog breeders can use to change and improve genetic diversity.
  3. Breed Relevance Ratings (BRR) are a way to assess the relevance of a specific test for a specific breed, based on the currently best-known information on the research and development of a test - but genetic tests are not limited to pedigree breeds. Genetic tests are used for a variety of reasons on all dogs, and understanding the relevance is important for any purpose-bred dog or breeding program, as well as individual dogs. BRR’s are estimated for all dogs, and where the research is not available for a specific breed or type, we have processes to provide transparent information about test relevance. How are BRRs estimated for cross-breeds? Where a test is available to a crossbreed, but there isn't crossbreed-specific research: If you are not yet familiar with the BRR color-code system, you can find information here. BRRs available for named crosses on the HGTD database do not assume the level of cross that has occurred – e.g. they do not assume that it is a Goldendoodle X Goldendoodle VS Golden Retriever X Standard Poodle. This is important, because research and anecdotal evidence from cross-breeders indicate that crossbreeds can vary in their crosses origin, and a 50:50 split between 2 breeds should not be assumed. This also acknowledges that some breed crosses are between similar breeds who may already share genes from before a division into distinct breeds - for example, Irish Setter and Irish Red and White Setters certainly share some historical origins. The table below gives a summary of the normal estimation of BRR where there is no cross-specific research known. Breed A Breed B Cross A x B Comments BRR is red or orange BRR is red or orange BRR may be orange, or yellow, with details in the phene/test breed-specific information Using test may risk results that are unhelpful or detrimental in decision-making BRR is green BRR is red or orange BRR is yellow, and may have information in the phene/test breed-specific information Impact of test results is unknown – may or may not be informative. This test should be considered with caution. BRR is yellow BRR is yellow, or test is not available BRR is yellow Impact of test results is unknown – may or may not be informative BRR is green BRR is yellow, or test is not available BRR is normally green, with details in the phene/test breed-specific information Test results are, on balance, likely to be informative and the test is relevant to the crossbreed BRR is green BRR is green BRR is green, but may be at a lower-level, unless additional evidence is available. Test results are likely to be informative and the test is relevant to the crossbreed For any BRR that are not able to be cross-breed specific, it is strongly recommended that you review the phene information to learn more about the disease/trait that is being tested for. The information there will be valuable to you when making a decision about the risk or importance of the test. Understanding the type of cross you have is also important. For example, if your dog is a Golden Retriever X Standard Poodle vs. Goldendoodle X Goldendoodle. If you're using a genetic test for breeding plans, this will impact the risk of inheritance in subsequent generations. The phenes database holds information on breed-specific research, and can include comments from researchers or pre-publication information that could be helpful for crossbreeds. For example, in PRA GR PRA2, there was specific feedback from the research team that developed the test to recommend it to Goldendoodles, based on the testing already performed across Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers, and Goldendoodles, as well as the original published research. Few researchers have the funding to do fully published and peer-reviewed cross-specific research for genetic tests, so the recommendation for tests with simple inheritance (e.g. Autosomal Recessive) is usually to test for any breed-specific tests in the composing breeds. Where there is crossbreed-specific research: The BRR is estimated in the same way as any breed. You can find information here. A good example of this is the genetic test for the disease “Ichthyosis, PNPLA1-related”. This is a relatively rare skin condition, that causes serious discomfort and welfare issues for a dog. The mutation was first discovered in the Golden Retriever in 2012, but was further investigated and described in golden-retriever-poodle crosses. When looking at the phene data, you can see publications for both breeds/types, in addition to the usual general description of the phene, GTPs offering the test, and other related information. What should I do if I don't see my crossbreed listed? New purposely bred crosses, or less common crosses, should ideally look at the breed-specific information for the breeds they are crossing when prioritizing testing information to use as part of a breeding plan, or to inform on an individual dog's risks. If considering genetic testing as part of breeding plans, it would be reasonable to be conservative, and use the breed-specific tests on the male and female being crossed to identify any genetic risks to the dogs themselves, and any genes they may pass on. In many cases, there can be genetic tests in common between breeds. These tests in common would likely be more informative on the risks for an individual dog, as well as any breeding considerations. For example, Progressive Retinal Atrophy - PRA prcd has 22 different breeds where the test is relevant (as of Dec 2020), and many more where the test is available. So, in principle any cross between those 22 different breeds should be one where the test results of PRA-prcd are considered. Where tests are not in common between two breeds being crossed, it becomes more complicated. If used in breeding plans, best practice would still recommended testing parents, and then off-spring, for all breed-specific tests for both parents. For an individual dog's risks, contacting your test provider for genetic advice or counselling may be valuable. You may find the table above useful in considering prioritizations. What about for “ALL” dogs? There are some tests that are available and relevant to all dogs. Examples include genetic tests that are: Diagnostic for a dog-wide condition (e.g. some cancer-risk tests) It relates to genes common to all dogs (e.g. coat colours) It is a genetic tool specific to an individual dog such as DNA profiling, or parentage As inheritance in cross and mixed breeds is generally less predictable than breeds using breed-specific tests, it is important to be aware of risks, take your time to research or get advice on genetic testing. Any permanent decisions (e.g. neutering, healthcare) should be approached with especial caution and with robust veterinary and genetic counselling, with the dog’s welfare always in mind. Any questions? As we are developing more advice and support for cross and mixed breed dogs, please feel free to contact us with any questions about genetic testing until more resources become available, at: aimee.llewellyn-zaidi@ipfdogs.com Title image with thanks to Helena Lopes via Pexels.
  4. Are outcrossing programmes supported by the Kennel Club? Here we feature Kennel Club materials on outcrossing and cross breeding.
  5. In This Issue: News & Highlights UK Owner Survey - The Kennel Club registered dogs: Newly published research Stay Informed!
  6. Why did cross breeding become taboo in the world of pedigree dogs? Author, Ingemar Borelius discusses the history of the purebred dog - breed standards, breeding between varieties of breeds, effects of the reduction in heterozygosity/narrowing gene pools and current efforts and measures taken to sustain genetic diversity in breeds with the aim of addressing health and welfare issues. Specific breeds mentioned in this writing are the Retrievers and several others (Spaniels, Lundehund, German pinscher, Kromfohrländer...) . Article-Ingemar Borelius -- Why did crossbreeding become taboo -PDF-
  7. See the PDF version The lundehund outcross - NKK.pdf Many thanks to Kim Belamy from the NKK for sharing this information with DWN!
  8. In their article: https://www.kennelliitto.fi/en/forms/instructions-implementing-and-monitoring-crosses-between-breeds Instructions For Implementing And Monitoring Crosses Between Breeds (approved by the Finnish Kennel Club board 22.11.2013. Valid from 1.1.2014) the Finnish Kennel Club (FKK) presents their goals (below), which also explain the motivation behind the program. It is important to note that the FKK has a strong history and well-developed program of monitoring and evaluating health and performance with each breed club reporting on conditions in their dogs. This forms the foundation for a considered and controlled approach to including cross-breeding in genetic strategies. "Goals: what is lacking: why are breed crosses needed? Improving or restoring working traits Decreasing the incidence of breed-specific genetic problems in health, behaviour and/or reproduction traits A harmful mutation allele has been fixed in the breed: bringing back a normal allele into the breed Improving the health in a breed with exaggerated conformation traits Improving general fitness in the breed (decreasing the incidence of immunological problems) Breed crosses are primarily intended for breeds which lack the necessary genetic variance needed in breeding against important traits. The application should include an analysis of the situation of the breed. The analysis should clearly show the need for crossbreeding. The breed-specific breeding strategy (JTO) of the breed may form the basis of the analysis."
  9. Finnish Kennel Club – Suomen kromfohrländer ry - Kromfohrländer Crossbreedings – Project Overview – History through F1 – Click on the image below to see the full report.
  10. This article contains an overview of the German Pinscher X Schnauzer crossbreeding project which was initially approved by the Finnish Kennel Club in 1996. Click on the image below to download the PDF file...
  11. Katariina Mäki, breeding advisor at the Finnish Kennel Club (FKC) has been presenting information in her Blog on the programs and approach in Finland. One of the programs involves the Pinscher, which has been in a crossbreeding program, with Schnauzers, since the 1990s. This report was presented at a meeting in Germany in 2010 : PINSCHER-SCHNAUZER CROSSBREEDING PROJECT is available online or in our Downloads section. In her blog, Katariina carefully acknowledges the risks and challenges involved in crossbreeding, but clearly, many feel that for some breeds, the potential benefits outweigh the risks.
  12. Graussies -- Documentation for the Brussels Griffon X Australian Terrier crossbreeding is extensive. Researchers hope that their findings will improve breeding guidelines and develop more sophisticated ways of screening so that fewer toy breed dogs develop Chiari-like malformation.
  13. More on crossbreeding in Finland Pinscher Kromfohrländer Due to interest in my previous post on Instructions for Crosses Between Breeds , I have been asked to provide some more information. At the moment, we have two crossbreeding projects going on in Finland: one in the Pinscher and another in the Kromfohrländer. The crossbred progeny are always registered in the appendix, ER-register, for three generations. From the 4th generation onward the progeny is registered in the normal, FI-register. The Pinscher is being crossed with the Schnauzer and the FKC has granted permission for four F1-litters. Three of them have been made so far (the project started in the 1990s). Here’s the newest report of the Pinscher project: http://www.elisanet.fi/yarracitta/CrossbreedingsENfinal.pdf or see the article under Crossbreeding on DogWellNet. Kromforhländer has been crossed with three different breeds (Standard Poodle, Parson Russell Terrier and Tibetan Terrier) in order to keep the breed as diverse as possible and not to take it in the direction of one foreign breed only. I am waiting for some written info about the project (in English) and will try to provide this – and pictures – in the future. We have also made three other cross-bred litters: Barbet with Spanish Waterdog Barbet with Pont-Audemer Spaniel Brasilian Terrier with Danish-Swedish Farm Dog (info coming on these litters as well) (Note that the breed in which the progeny is registered is mentioned first) The main challenge with crossbreeding in Finland is this: Many breeders here would like to crossbreed but, we always ask the opinion of the country of origin, and we would prefer to get their support. We have had problems with this – sometimes having no response to inquiries to the national kennel club. In at least one case, a request to the breed club in the country of ownership – in a breed with well-known heath issues – provoked the response that: a breeder who did any cross would have their membership from the club revoked and their stud dogs removed from the club registry. So we are very grateful for Germany and France for being so open-minded and giving our inquiry a positive feedback . From our perspective at the FKC, we do not understand why people are so afraid of breed crosses. After all, that is how most breeds have been developed in the first place. We are just taking a short step back, in order to then move forward with healthier dogs, with appropriate temperament who are able to do the activities for which the breed is intended. We know that we might get some undesirable surprises with crossbreeding, but that might happen in “purebred” breeding as well. Of course, care should be taken in choosing the foreign breed and the individuals, as well as in deciding which crossbred dogs to use in further breeding, but this should, again, apply to any breeding, whether purebred or crosses.
  14. The Finnish Kennel Club has written instructions for breed crossing. The instructions are of help for breeders and breed clubs in planning, applying and monitoring breed crosses and crossbred individuals. This information is presented in The Finnish Kennel Club: Crosses between Breeds on DogWellNet.com in the Breeding for Health section: sub.section Crossbreeding.
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