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Theme attended at 3rd IDHW in Paris

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  1. Congratulations to the University of Sydney and OMIA - the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals database. 25 years old 25 May 2020. Check out the celebration webpage here. This amazing resource underpins research and education on genetics in many species and has been a key support for advancement in the world of dog genetics and genomics. The development and maintenance of this fantastic database is due to the input and support of many academics, researchers, and others, many of whom volunteer their expertise and time. But it would not have existed or been maintained without the commitment and passion of Frank Nicholas. We gratefully congratulate him on this milestone. OMIA is a collaborating partner of the IPFD, and we have been coordinating and linking with them to maintain the quality of the Harmonization of Genetic Testing for Dogs database and resources. The OMIA numbering system is vital for international collaboration and critical to harmonizing genetic phenes across research and industry. IPFD is very proud of and grateful for this association and will help celebrate this event with a donation via the OMIA site. Why not join us in recognizing this important and necessary achievement?
  2. Several IPFD collaborators are speaking at the AVMA conference this weekend! Thanks to IPFD collaborator, Dr. Jason Stull, there are sessions focusing on Canine Genetics in the Dr. James H. Steele One Health stream, including: Angela Hughes DVM, PhD from Wisdom Health is presenting Utilizing Genetic Panel Testing in Dogs for Breed and Disease and IPFD CEO Brenda Bonnett, DVM, PhD who is talking about Genetic Testing to Improve Canine Health: The Big Picture and why this truly needs to be considered from the One Health approach. Hint: We care about the dogs, but it is people who complicate everything!! In addition, Theme Leader at the 3rd International Dog Health Workshop in Paris, Jason Stull VMD, MPVM, PhD, DACVPM, is giving a series of talks on infectious disease concerns in veterinary practices, including, e.g. The Dummies' Guide to Preventing Hospital-Associated Infections. Harmonization of Genetic Testing for Dogs (HGTD) collaborator, Kari Ekenstedt DVM, PhD, is delivering a whole afternoon of talks on clinical genetics, including Practical Applications of Genetic Testing in Dogs and Cats. Hope to see vets and vet techs that are keen to expand their practical knowledge about dogs and genetics... See a follow-up:
  3. Thanks to our co-hosts, The Kennel Club, the 4th International Dog Health Workshop was a great success. The consensus seems to be that the IDHWs just keep getting better and better. This is due in great part to the efforts of the attendees - decision leaders from 18 countries, representing all stakeholders in dog health and welfare - including representatives from research, the veterinary world, welfare organizations, kennel and breed organizations, and more. Stellar plenary speakers set the tone for intense and productive breakout sessions in the various themes. The themes were: Genetics, Breed-Specific Breeding Strategies, The Concept of Breed and its Impact on Health, Supply and Demand, and Extremes of Conformation. Below you will find links to fantastic pre- and post-workshop materials. Be sure to check in to DogWellNet.com and follow us on Facebook and Twitter for important updates from the several working groups who are already moving ahead with needed actions. As seen in the word cloud from our participants, a key aspect of this meeting is collaboration and networking. Coming together with others who are dealing with similar challenges and who share a commitment to health dogs provides a boost of energy for both cooperative efforts as well as the day to day work by these committed dog people. Below you will also see reports and write ups about the 4th IDHW, and there will be more as the work continues. Thanks to all who attended, and we will keep you informed on developing plans for the 5th IDHW in 2021. 4th IDHW Pre- and Post-Meeting Resources From pre-meeting reading material to posters and slide presentations from the workshop, we've compiled materials from the 4th IDHW, so that participants can refer back to them - and so that those who were unable to attend can also benefit from this impressive collection of downloadable resources. Pre-Meeting Resources | Post Meeting Resources Articles on the 4th IDHW Vet Record News: 4th IDHW workshop - "Improving the health of pedigree dogs" Lance Novak, Executive Director, Canadian Kennel Club: From My Side of the Desk: Canine Health and Wellness Several articles by Ian J. Seath of the Dachshund Breed Council (DBC): My report on the 4th International Dog Health Workshop for Our Dogs My presentation to the 4th International Dog Health Workshop (IDHW4) Breed Health Strategies – Addressing the challenges: My July 2019 “Best of Health” article The why and how of Breed-specific Health Strategies – “Best of Health” June 2019 Aimee Llewellyn-Zaidi's Report from the Genetic Testing Theme, from the 4th International Dog Health Workshop Canine Genetics and Epidemiology Journal. As following the 3rd IDHW, we are compiling a report on the 4th that will be review and published by our collaborating partners at CGE. If you haven't seen the previous article, check it out here. Global Pet Obesity Initiative After an overwhelming show of support by attendees of the 4th IDHW, IPFD has confirmed its support of the Global Pet Obesity Initiative Position Statement (launched by The Association for Pet Obesity Prevention (APOP)) calling for the veterinary profession to adopt uniform nomenclature for canine and feline obesity. IPFD is currently in discussions with APOP to look at ways to collaborate on the important issue of canine obesity.
  4. In our final installment of the Digest for 2019, we are putting the spotlight on 2019 milestones, and looking forward to 2020 – which promises to be a pivotal year for IPFD and DogWellNet.com. In 2019, our fifth full year of operation, we focused our efforts on several key initiatives, including: the Harmonization of Genetic Testing for Dogs (HGTD); the 4th International Dog Health Workshop (IDHW); the continued growth of DogWellNet.com and our online community. We provided an independent voice in addressing complex and often controversial challenges, including "Hot Topics" such as canine genetics; and shared resources e.g. on health and welfare issues in brachycephalic breeds. See other interviews and news reports featuring IPFD here. As a start up non-profit five years ago, we represented a good idea, with an admirable mission. Many were enthusiastic about the concept, but perhaps unclear about the details of what could be accomplished. IPFD developed based on a strategy of 'if we build it, they will come'. The progress has been gratifying, but never fast enough for me, personally. The acknowledgement of the need for multi-stakeholder, international collaboration and action is widespread; but the realities of the dog world and the demands of local, regional, and national responsibilities of our volunteers and collaborators continues to pose challenges. As we move into a phase of enhancing stability and sustainability, we have a lot to celebrate and great potential on which to capitalize. The word cloud created from participants' comments from the 4th International Dog Health Workshop exemplifies many of our issues, goals, and efforts We have a substantial focus on science and evidence, but we never forget that the human element underpins everything we do. Our Spotlight video in December's Digest shows a softer side, reminding us that it is our love and appreciation for dogs that motivates us. People are always the strength of an organization, and now is a good time to acknowledge and thank the small but committed team of consultants who do the lion's share of work at IPFD. Please check out their profiles and read more about their efforts, below and in the Digest. The IPFD Board has gone through a transformation in 2019, with three members transitioning off the Board and five enthusiastic new Board members joining. The Board now comprises both old friends and new faces with renewed energy and purpose to help launch IPFD into the new decade, capitalizing on existing strengths and addressing ongoing challenges. Bios for the Board are here; we can all look forward to learning more about them in our 2019 Annual Report, and hearing from them in articles and blogs. In the spirit of the season, below are some highlights from 2019 – these could make for some great holiday reading! Thanks to everyone who has supported IPFD and participated in our work in 2019. And here's to a stellar 2020... as we leap ahead with great aspirations. New IPFD Contributors We welcomed two new Contributing Partners in 2019: The Canadian Kennel Club (January) Raad van Beheer (The Dutch Kennel Club) the official kennel club of The Netherlands (February). A new two-year Sponsor, the Morris Animal Foundation (July). And several Non-Breed Specific Collaborators, which are organizations serving health and welfare interests for all breeds: European School for Advanced Veterinary Studies (ESAVS) (June) Global Pet Obesity Initiative (August) And going into 2020, we have renewed and ongoing contracts with all existing Contributing Partners! Harmonization of Genetic Testing for Dogs (HGTD) The HGTD Project has seen significant growth in 2019, and currently lists 76 Genetic Test Providers (GTPs) across 22 countries, worldwide with 42 currently participating or starting their participation. Thanks to Project Director Aimee Llewellyn-Zaidi! We have made several improvements to the information we record for both genetic test providers and test information. This includes clearer information on what laboratories are used for outsourced testing and when information has been updated by GTPs. Thanks to our App developer Michael Edwards (Coding Jungle), we continue to further automate the updating process and add on new functions. See further details on HGTD in the Digest. In 2020, in addition to expanding engagement with GTPs, we will integrate various projects (Expert Panel, Health Strategies Database (HSDD), the Get a GRIHP Program) to enhance breed-specific information and outputs. Read about these initiatives in Brenda's presentation under Breed-Specific Health Strategies at the 2019 4th IDHW, here. 4th International Dog Health Workshop (IDHW) The IDHWs bring together a wide range of stakeholders in dog health, science, and welfare to improve international sharing of information and resources, provide a forum for ongoing collaboration, and identify specific needs and actions to improve health, well-being, and welfare in dogs. IPFD is responsible for the International Dog Health Workshops and partners with other organizations who manage meeting logistics. Access the amazing resources from the four IDHWs here. The 4th IDHW, co-hosted by the Kennel Club in Windsor, UK, in May/June 2019, included more than 130 decision leaders from 17 countries, who joined us to share their experiences and expertise across five Themes addressing some of the most pressing issues in the dog world. We’ve compiled pre- and post-meeting resources here, both for the benefit of workshop participants and for those who were unable to attend. We continue to see the dividends of the important work done at the first three IDHWs (read more in our publication from the Paris 3rd IDHW and look for a new publication in the Journal of Canine Epidemiology and Genetics in 2020), and Working Groups have begun work on issues addressed at the 4th IDHW earlier this year. The 5th IDHW takes place in 2021, with the date and location to be confirmed soon! DogWellNet.com Our internet platform, DogWellNet.com, is an open access, ever-expanding information hub, providing links, documents, and additional resources to breeders and others in the dog world. For an overview of the site, including an explanation of key content areas and features, please visit DogWellNet.com: At A Glance. Although almost all DogWellNet content is available to guests, we encourage readers to sign up as members on the site. As of the publishing date for this issue, more than 1,200 people have signed up on DogWellNet.com, including more than 500 Members and 700+ Advanced Members. One of the popular resources on the site is the Breeds Database, ably overseen by our Content Manager Ann Milligan. A former breeder, and current judge, Ann is always thrilled to get information from breed clubs and breeders, as we continue to expand this resource. In 2020, there will be further integration of material from the breeds database with our other initiatives (HGTD; HSDD, etc.). DogWellNet Digest This is our eighth 2019 issue of DogWellNet Digest – a collection of the latest news from IPFD and DogWellNet.com. A link to each new issue is emailed to all IPFD Members and posted to our social media accounts, and all previous issues are archived on DogWellNet.com. See also IPFD in the Media for excerpts or links to published articles, etc. that reference IPFD or DogWellNet. IPFD Social Media In 2019, our social media presence expanded further into the dog world with several targeted campaigns and a growing following of our Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn accounts. Thanks to Dave St. Louis, our Communications Specialist, for keeping us in touch with our Partners, Members, and the dog world, in general. Another key online tool is our video resources. See our latest, a feel-good offering for the season, and tantalizing, early glimpse of our 2019 Annual Report. Enough looking back, let's talk about... Moving Forward in 2020 With additions to HGTD and other genetic counseling resources, implementation of the Expert Panel, creation of the HSDD, planning for the 5th IDHW; enhanced activities with our revitalized Board, ongoing outreach with our Partners and Sponsors...the possibilities are exciting! All the best for the holiday season and Happy New Year from IPFD...where every year is the Year of the Dog.
  5. What a great weekend of education - with the Canadian Kennel Club and about 170 participants, including breeders with a range of experience from over 40 years to novices. Speakers Dr. Kari Ekenstedt, a geneticist from Purdue University in Indiana and IPFD CEO Dr. Brenda Bonnett covered 'everything you need to know to understand genetic testing' in a clear, concise and entertaining series of talks. Interactive discussions with the many knowledgeable, committed attendees were interesting and thought-provoking. Read more here. Download the schedule here: CKC Seminar Schedule Final.pdf My talks covered the Harmonization of Genetic Testing and the many initiatives IPFD is pursuing to support breeders, as well as a talk together with Kari on Ethics and Welfare. In addition, both speakers addressed issues about genetic diversity, selection and inbreeding. Dr. Ekestedt's presentation was a primarily science-based coverage, including description of various tools, including calculation of Coefficients of Inbreeding (COIs). My talk on Population Health and Diversity presented a more conceptual coverage of diversity (see below), including examples from other species. Both talks included practical suggestions for including these aspects in breeding decisions, but this was also meant to promote discussion and consideration by breeders as they examine their own role, as well as the roles of breed and kennel clubs in promoting and conserving health and longevity in their breeds. It is clear that many breeders are struggling with definitions and implications of genetic diversity, inbreeding and line breeding, and with resolving new information from the fast-advancing world of genetics and genomics with long-held attitudes and practices that are firmly embedded in dog breeding culture. Below are some key points and challenging issues raised in these talks and in the interesting and frank discussions with participants. Thanks to the Canadian Kennel Club and all the participants for a stimulating and enjoyable weekend of continuing education! Congrats to the CKC team who put on a great event. Stay tuned as we will post on DogWellNet.com the video of my talk and links to the rest of the program - hopefully in early January 2020. Additional reading on Genetic Diversity Understanding Breeds as Populations - J. Bell What we can learn from each other: Show Greyhounds Is Crossbreeding a Part of the Plan for Bulldogs -- Genetic Considerations (references Pederson Study) Small Population Breeds and Issues of Genetic Diversity - J. Bell
  6. Purdue University News - Press release - Your dog might be hiding its true colors From the Press release... " New research from Purdue University’s College of Veterinary Medicine shows that some breeds of dogs have hidden coat colors – and in some cases, other traits – that have been lurking all along. Example: There are around 18 recognized breeds of dogs that have the genetic potential to be born without a tail – such as the popular Australian Shepherd (shown in photo). But the data shows that up to 48 of the breeds analyzed possess the tailless gene variant, usually at a very low frequency." Wisdom Health - Press release - First-of-its-kind study reveals genetic traits determining coat colors and physical appearance in over 200 dog breeds November 2019 From the Press release... "As our study demonstrates, purebred dogs have so much more than meets the eye - literally. The information provided by a WISDOM PANEL dog DNA test can help us better understand the hidden elements of dog genetics," said Dr. Angela Hughes DVM PhD, veterinarian and canine genetics expert at Wisdom Health. "While our study focused primarily on purebred populations, these hidden traits can also have ramifications for mixed breed dogs. When unexpected or hidden traits are passed to mixed breed dogs from their purebred ancestors, it further complicates the already difficult task of visual breed identification making DNA tests the only reliable method of determining breed ancestry." Read the study... True Colors: Commercially-acquired morphological genotypes reveal hidden allele variation among dog breeds, informing both trait ancestry and breed potential Comment: Extracted content of interest to dog breeders & breed managers... See S3 Table. Unfavorable or “fault” phenotypes possible by breed and breed registry. "Breeds genotyped to have alleles that would produce phenotypes considered as a “fault” by either the American Kennel Club (AKC), Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI), United Kennel Club (UKC), or The Kennel Club of the UK (KC). The level of tolerance within each breed registry is designated as either not allowed (N), not preferred (n.p.), allowed (Y), or ambiguously worded (amb.). A breed not recognized by a given organization is indicated with a dash (-). Inheritance of the fault-causing allele is designated as dominant (D), recessive (R), or compound heterozygote (CH). Breed name abbreviations are as listed in S1 Table. Probabilities for producing the non-standard phenotype were calculated assuming random mating within the breed, and account for multi-gene inheritance, expression, and epistatic effects." https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0223995.s005 " Much recent emphasis has been placed on the importance of genetic diversity within breeds [69–76]. With the conservation of diversity in mind, breeders and breed organizations must weigh the relative value of breed standard conformity with preservation of genetic diversity. The existence of unfavorable, though arguably benign pigmentation or morphological variations, has here been quantified and can be addressed by applied genetic screening to reduce the carrier frequency of breeding stock, or by reassessing breed standards to broaden the acceptance of preexisting variation. Likewise, though our analyses have indicated that production of disallowed phenotypes is generally quite low, the occurrence of an undesirable pigmentation trait should not necessarily exclude a dog from purebred status if that variant has been detected in the appropriate population. As a recent example, effective 1 January 2019, the Great Dane Club of America revised their breed standard to allow merle coloring on a black base. Canine genetic research has clarified that the presence of the merle allele is required for the Harlequin phenotype [14]; since this relationship was previously unclear, the breed had not allowed merle (without the Harlequin modifier) until this change. These revisions demonstrate the purebred dog community recognizing and willingly implementing the findings from canine genetic research. The present work will guide similar decision-making by breed clubs regarding definition of acceptable breed colors. "
  7. From - Standards, Health and Genetics in Dogs - Chapter II - Genetic testing in dogs - Marie Abitbol (France) "The first part of this chapter presents the genetic characteristics of the canine species and the basics of canine genetics. The second part addresses the use of screening and diagnostic tests for inherited diseases, with a focus on genetic counselling and the parameters that determine the interpretation of test results. The third part concentrates on the search for informations on canine inherited diseases and the tests available. The final part presents tests for aesthetic characteristics such as coat colour."
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    Jerold Bell outlines concerns involved with use of genetic tests - 2012 IDHW
  9. I was honoured to again be invited to speak at the 2019 AKC Canine Health Foundation National Parent Club Canine Health Conference August 9-11 in St. Louis, Missouri. This is a great event that brings together breed club health committee members, other interested breeders, stellar researchers, and others from the dog community. There was a broad coverage of CHF sponsored research topics, as well as a definite focus on genetics and genetic testing, reflecting the continued need for information and support for the dog community on these issues. In addition to lectures, there were two panel discussions which allowed attendees to ask questions of the scientists. The first was on Saturday afternoon. I gave my talk on Sunday, and that session was also followed by a panel discussion. A pdf copy of my talk, with post-talk notes, is attached: BONNETT CHF Harmonization of Genetic Testing and Breed Specific Resources 11Aug2019_with notes.pdf As I note in this document, I heard a lot of frustration from those asking questions, and others who approached me over the weekend. As I said to all of them, "It is not surprising that you are confused and frustrated... the world of genetic testing IS confusing and frustrating!". Although many exciting developments in genetic research were presented over the weekend, and other talks focused on application of testing, there were few if any simple, yes/no, black and white answers. 'Genetics' underlies all life in our universe, is the basis of all evolution... it is not now, nor will it ever be, simple, uncomplicated and, perhaps, never really fully understood. Even while we are struggling to get a hold on the appropriate use of the many tests available for single-gene disorders, some researchers are moving ahead on diseases with a more complex inheritance. And even now the research world is moving more and more into whole-genome sequencing, which may be available at a reasonable price within a couple of years. And then what? We will know more and more about the genetic makeup of individuals and breeds. But will we have the detailed information needed on the meaning of all these results? The key information for properly integrating genetic testing into best breeding practices? Probably not. As is the current situation, the technology will likely advance faster that our ability to deal with it in a practical sense. And, for all the potential good, there are significant risks to applying tests in the face of insufficient clinical/population-based information. This same situation is also arising in human medicine; a topic I touched on in my recent talk at the American Veterinary Medical Association meeting. Leigh-Anne Clark from Clemson University gave a great talk on risk across the various combinations of a three genes associated with dermatomyositis - combinations which highlighted the added complexity of multi-gene disorders. (see abstract: pg. 68) Her work also showed the kind of explicit risk percentages that are needed to really understand the results from genetic testing. We recently posted on Facebook a link to a video of a previous talk Dr. Clark gave which is well worth viewing. Another recurring challenge brought up by attendees involved breed clubs' frustrations in communicating health strategies to their members and in achieving compliance with recommendations. I mention in my talks 'Decision making by Facebook'. Unfortunately, the latter drives a lot of the focus for many in kennel and breed clubs. Several clubs brought up instances where rare diseases, or diseases with unknown importance in their breed, were being pushed forward to have a genetic testing strategy, sometimes taking emphasis away from common, known, important conditions in the breed. Several of the experts recommended not basing testing strategies for such condition just because a test was available, but rather looking at the big picture of health in the breed. It became quite clear that many of breed club's frustrations stem not from a lack of research or information or having complex information, but on an inability to effect behaviour change in their members through traditional channels of education. This was a common theme at the IDHW as well and we brought in experts on Human Behaviour Change for Animals to educate us. I personally think that learning how to communicate more effectively is desperately needed. All these concerns and experiences underlie IPFD's work on improving and expanding the tools needed to deal with genetic testing and health strategies in breeds. See my talk from the CHF meeting for information on the latest work on the Harmonization of Genetic Testing for Dogs (HGTD), a coming development, the Health Strategies Database for Dogs that will catalog all conditions in breeds (not just those for which there are genetic tests based on identified health issues from breed clubs, kennel clubs, and others worldwide. We are starting a project in Golden Retrievers as a prototype of our Get a GRIHP! tool to pull all relevant information together for a breed. It is so wonderful to meet with those people so passionate about health in their breeds. Thanks to AKC-CHF and all the attendees for a great experience.
  10. Here we are pleased to present a Chapter from the Book - Standards, Health and Genetics in Dogs/Standards, Santé et Génétique chez le Chien GUINTARD C. and LEROY G. [Dir.], Standards, Health and Genetics in Dogs / Standards, santé et génétique chez le Chien /, FCI-SCC-SKK ed., 2017, ISBN : 9 782746 696730, 400 p. Relationships between genetics, breeding practices and health in dogs - Grégoire Leroy (France) English and French versions are available.
  11. I had the honour to be invited to give a talk at the annual American Veterinary Medical Association conference in Washington, DC on 04 August 2019. I was asked to speak on the One Health aspects of genetic testing. Many of you will have heard of One Health. The human medical establishment started to coin this phrase in the early 2000's to indicate an approach to health that considered humans, animals an the environment. As a veterinarian and an epidemiologist I can tell you that we had that figured out a long time before, but as it was also put forward by Hippocrates, I don't suppose we will worry about who came first! For more info see this article by One Health Sweden... and their image. I specify how genetic testing fits under that umbrella. It actually is a bit of a no-brainer isn't it? Everything we do with dogs is tied up with people and so many conditions of concern are affected by where and how we live, in the broadest sense. When we talk about genetic testing, both from the science to the commercialization and application there are so many points of intersection between the human and pet world. As you will see in my talk, attached below, the impacts can't be ignored if we are to successfully navigate the world of genetic testing. For us and for our pets! Although many of the issues raised are a cause for concern and increase our awareness of significant challenges, we should always keep in mind that there are a host of potential and even remarkable benefits to be realized from genetic testing. However, with Direct-To-Consumer marketing, the popularization of genetic testing, and the many challenges raised on the spectrum from discovery to application we all need the information and tools to make the best decisions. These issues were also raised, discussed at the 4th IDHW and working groups are moving ahead to address them. IPFD has the Harmonization of Genetic Testing already available and we are working on further developments like the Expert Panel and the Health Strategies Database for Dogs, as well as breed specific tools to help owners, breeders, advisors, researchers, veterinarians - really all stakeholders in the crazy-wonderful world of genetic and genomic testing. [[link to Aimee's article]] Warning - the complexities of genetic testing are not going to go away in the near future! Let's continue to work together for the health, well-being and welfare of our animal companions and the humans who wouldn't want to live without them. One Health! BONNETT - Genetic Testing The Big Picture_AVMA talk August 2019.pdf
  12. 2019 Lewis TW, Mellersh CS. Changes in mutation frequency of eight Mendelian inherited disorders in eight pedigree dog populations following introduction of a commercial DNA test. Plos One, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0209864 DNA Testing - General Subject: DNA Testing Type: Research Journal/Source: peer-reviewed research publication Authors/Researchers: University, Kennel Club (IPFD Partners); HGTD Participants Recommended For: Veterinarians, Owners/Breeders This study is one of the very few to investigate the impact of DNA testing on changing a dog population's disease risk. The research looked at determining changes in frequency of disease causing mutations (how common a mutant gene is in a population) as a result of breeding-pair selection based on DNA test results. The results indicated that there has been an overall decline in disease causing mutations in the 8 diseases in 8 breeds investigated. While the paper recognises that there can be variations in how quickly a disease is reduced or eliminated (such as breed population size), it concluded that where dog breeders appear to incorporate DNA test results as part of breeding plans, there is success in decreasing the frequency of mutation. The study looked at: prcd-PRA in Labrador Retriever and Cocker Spaniel, HC in Staffordshire Bull Terriers, EIC in Labrador Retriever, PLL in Mini-Bull Terrier, EF and DE/CC in Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, PRA rcd-4 in Gordon, and Irish Setter, and spinocerebellar ataxia in Parson Russell Terrier. Within the UK at least, this represents a spectrum of large and small breeds, and generally "known" diseases within the breeds. 2019 Lewis TW, Mellersh CS. Changes in mutation frequency of eight Mendelian inherited disorders in eight pedigree dog populations following introduction of a commercial DNA test. Plos One, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0209864 See also: Nearly 20 Years of DNA Testing – What Can We Learn? : IPFD CEO's blog post with discussion of wider implications of the study's approach and findings; based on Ian Seath's commentary (Dog-ED: Social Enterprise) with a breeder/health council perspective on the article above. IPFD Harmonization of Genetic Testing (HGTD) and search on the mentioned diseases for more information on the the condition, phenes, tests and more.
  13. This paper describes genetic analysis of a breed facing significant challenges: the Norwegian Lundehund. See the paper here. PDF: esv031.pdf Some of this work was described at the 2nd International Dog Health Workshop by Prof. JT Epplen, one of the authors. Although unique in many ways, the situation in the Lundehund is one to be considered thoughtfully by all in the dog breeding world. This is an ancient breed - first developed 5 centuries ago - and it is now endangered. See a few excerpts from the research paper below:
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    USA BMD StatisticsRegistrations and Health by Pat Long, May 2019 This file contains statistics for Bernese Mountain Dogs tested for vWD, DM and Antegene's Histio PreTest. Also see the xls... AKC BMD registrations statistics 1937-current.xlsx
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    Discussion of Expert Panels, test validation, lab quality standards, proficiency and the HGTD. Also see DWN's ARTICLE: Report from the Genetic Testing Theme, from the 4th International Dog Health Workshop " which should be viewed as a dynamic document summarizing the pre-thru-post 4th IDHW meeting activities around the Genetic Testing theme. Please note that additions and changes may occur. We will be welcoming comments and suggestions from participants in the workshop and working groups as we move forward. Please contact Aimee at aimee.llewellyn-zaidi@ipfdogs.com.
  16. The book, Standards, Santé et Génétique chez le Chien / Standards, Health and Genetics in the Dog was created by the Société Centrale Canine (SCC) in collaboration with the Fédération Cynophile Internationale (F.C.I.) and the Swedish Kennel Club (SKK). Under the direction of Claude Guintard and Grégoire Leroy, the publication was presented as a tribute to Mrs. René Sporre-Willes and Mr. Raymond Triquet, longstanding chairs of the F.C.I.'s the Standards Commission, at the Third IPFD Dog Health Workshop held in Paris from April 21 to 23, 2017. Standards, Santé et Génétique chez le Chien / Standards, Health and Genetics in the Dog presents information from the world of dogs which can be applied in service to canine and human health and well-being. This work includes contributions by veterinarians, researchers, and dog-theorists who offer insights into the development of breed standards as well as the incredible advances in molecular genetics. We at DogWellNet are delighted to be able to present the content from this book's 396 pages which includes 20 texts in English and in French distributed in two large chapters. The book's Table of Contents (TOC-Standards, Santé et Génétique chez le Chien-Standards, Health and Genetics in Dogs) is available to DWN guests as well as DWN members. DWN members will have access to all of the book's texts available in DWN's Downloads section. Over the coming year we will feature texts from the book in DWN articles which will be accessible to DWN's members as well as guests. We would like to thank the book's producers and authors for their exceptional knowledge, extraordinary insights and for their willingness to share their expertise with people who are a part of the international dog community.
  17. Posted originally 26 July 2018; UPDATED 30 July 2018 Congratulations to the authors (Lisa Moses, Steve Niemi and Elinor Karlsson) for their commentary in Nature (and pdf, below). In “Pet genomics medicine runs wild” these authors have done a great job describing the myriad challenges related to genetic testing in pets. In fact, their concerns reflect those underpinning the International Partnership for Dogs (IPFD) initiative - the Harmonization of Genetic Testing for Dogs (HGTD). The IPFD, together with an impressive team of Partners and Collaborators (national kennel clubs, animal industries, veterinary, academic, welfare and other organizations) and our Leadership Sponsor Genetic Test Providers (GTPs), is providing a practical and effective tool to support consumers, veterinarians and researchers. However, as we face these challenges, it is important to not lose sight of the phenomenal potential for genetic testing to support health, well-being and welfare in dogs, as well as aspects of human-dog interactions. Although the authors of the commentary justifiably call for this segment to have some controls, at the moment, there is no regulatory body that has the authority to impose standards on this burgeoning and unregulated industry - especially not on an international basis or in a timely fashion. Rather than waiting for consensus on controls, the IPFD (an independent, non-profit, registered in Sweden), together with our Partners, Collaborators and experts, as well as concerned GTPs, has created a platform that will provide the foundation to address many of the concerns raised in the Nature article.
  18. From the Dog Breeding Reform group's inaugural meeting... DBRG 2017 22 October 2017 at 13:18:18 Lecture - video and slides Terms and concepts...Multifactorial traits, Genetic factors, Environmental factors, Threshold effect, Lafora’s disease, MWHD, Degenerative Myelopathy, whole breed management, Simple (single gene), Complex, Single gene disorder, Simple autosomal recessive, Homozygous clear, Heterozygote (carrier), Homozygous affected, coat colours, incompletely penetrant autosomal recessive, Complex inheritance, Polygenic traits, Wobblers, Diagnostic test may expensive and/or inconclusive, Effect of environment / other factors, standards, epigenetics, immune mediated disease and more...
  19. The great juggling act...Ask any long time dog breeder and they'll tell you, exploring the subject of dog breeding and looking at how to define 'best practices' that lead to production of healthy, functional dogs is getting more complicated by the day! A COMPLEX BALANCE: What are You Measuring? How do you define and verify successes or failures? Health status (current or long-term) is but one part of a breeder's evaluation of a dog's suitability for breeding. Assessing a dog's health and any other quality or characteristic goes hand-in-hand with the breeder's goals and reasons for breeding/keeping dogs. A breeder's evaluation of the dog's conformation/structure, breed type, temperament, personality, working ability and serviceability is combined with health considerations at the time of breeding and beyond. Juggling all the different 'balls' of whether a dog is to to be included or excluded from a breeding program, a pairing is likely to produce quality offspring or developing a workable breeding strategy for an entire breed is an extremely difficult task. Screening for hips, elbows, heart and eye examinations by veterinarians, expert evaluators, and a myriad of schemes developed to govern those types of non-dna evaluations have long been considered by health-conscious breeders as essential components of quality breeding programs. Enter the explosion of research on DNA and the dog genome - scientists are in the process of examining the genetic components of everything - health conditions and diseases, predispositions to manifest diseases, physical characteristics, longevity, genetic diversity, behaviours - in people, dogs and other species. DNA tests and direct to consumer sales of DNA tests has opened up a whole new world of 'evaluation tools' for dog breeders. Understanding genetic testing and applying results of tests to breeding decisions and management of individual dogs and breeds is clearly no simple matter. The science is relatively new - but its effects are already widespread - for the better in some cases - but challenges exist. For insights... Check out Finnish Kennel club Breeding Experts, Taina Nygård and Katariina Mäki's writeup, Gene tests for consumer advice
  20. The search function offered here allows you to enter terms used to describe heritable diseases for which DNA tests are currently available. Breed-specific DNA tests and/or DNA tests applicable to all breeds are available in the HGTD database. Go to the HGTD Search by Test / Disease.
  21. The Society for the Promotion of Applied Research in Canine Science (SPARCS) is a non-profit organization now maintained by The National Canine Research Council, created to bridge the gap between canine science and dog lovers by providing an international platform where modern animal behavior science can be presented, discussed, and debated by the greatest minds in canine science. SPARCS hosts an international conference where speakers give in-depth presentations pertaining to questions about dog behavior, welfare, and key issues the world faces in the human-canine bond. SPARCS Video Library - See all presentations Conference Presentations 2018
  22. "In this Canine Health Foundation webinar Dr. Danika Bannasch, DVM, PhD University of California, Davis, School of Veterinary Medicine, discusses the major advances that have been made in our understanding of the molecular basis for inherited diseases in dogs. These advances, in the form of DNA based tests for breeding animals have changed that way breeders make breeding decisions. During the webinar Dr. Bannasch will discuss the basics of dog genetics, the different modes of inheritance or how genetic traits and diseases are transmitted from one generation to the next and the exceptions to the basic modes of inheritance."
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