Well, it's been 10 weeks... and I've learned quite a lot. I hope you have, too! As my project comes to an end, Nina and I wanted to give our viewers a big thank you. I hope you enjoyed this blog series and feel more confident about what your role is in solving antimicrobial resistance (AMR). We would also like to extend a huge thank you to the Skippy Frank Fund who sponsored this entire project, and a thank you to Dr. Jason Stull and Dr. Brenda Bonnett for being wonderful mentors every step of the way.
It is important to keep in mind that science is an ever-changing field that is constantly updated with new material. For example there's a new study that just came out suggesting that not finishing a course of antibiotics may not cause resistance, which is contrary to the current belief. Here is the link to this article if you would like to read more about it. Even though this blog is over, I hope that you continue your AMR education as new scientific data arises.
To complete my summer project, I have constructed a poster that I will be presenting at The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine's Research Day.
Take a look!
Here is the downloadable PDF version:
Be sure to keep checking www.DogWellNet.com for more information on dog health and wellness!
Something we all share in common is the environment, and green is the new black! With movements towards protecting our environment, it is important to know about the role antibiotics play.
Proper kennel waste disposal instructions can be found here:
Instructions on how to properly dispose of unused medications:
For more info on antibiotic stewardship, please visit some of my previous blogs and articles.
Here are a couple...
Antibiotic Use in Pets Could Give Rise to Superbugs
The Basics of Antimicrobial Resistance
This 'One Health' buzzword... what is it? Who is implementing it, and who actually is following through?
The idea of ‘one health’ dates all the way back to the 19th century when Rudolf Virchow, MD studied links between human and veterinary medicine. He came up with the term ‘zoonosis’ in regards to a pathogen that can be transmitted from animals to humans. This sparked the idea that medicine is not segregated into different categories, but it is rather interconnected. Throughout the past century, scientists have become aware that other sectors such as environmental science and agriculture are involved as well. Today, ‘one health’ is being seemingly adopted by many nations, but who is following through with the idea?
Various countries and organizations have embraced the 'one health' concept, but there is quite a bit of variation in how far and to what extent it has really been implemented. Sometimes there are a few obvious developments beyond yearly interdisciplinary conferences. This is a great starting point, but unfortunately the ideas generated may not result in sustainable collaboration or initiatives.
The United Kingdom has a good example of following through with the ‘one health’ initiative. Below you will find a downloadable link on a document from the UK titled “Implementing a One Health Approach: The Example of Antimicrobial Resistance- the UK Perspective.”
Implementing a One Health Approach- The UK perspective.pdf
In this document, actual data sets are shown along with monitoring of the country’s progress in different ‘one health’ fields. In the UK, there is a system in place for monitoring antibiotic prescription, so they are able to check if their ‘one health’ approach to prudent use of antibiotics is working. Having this monitoring system is important for accountability and to ensure that ‘one health’ plans made are carried out, and do not stop at the drawing board.
In the United States, the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) has created the Task Force on Antimicrobial Stewardship in Companion Animal Practice (TFASCAP). They have also been working internationally with a 'one health' focus to solve the problem of AMR. Here are some links to their work so far:
Antimicrobial Use in Companion Animal Practice
The table below extracted from an article in the International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents exhibits the different organizations with a surveillance system of resistant bacteria. The table also show's who is following the ‘one health’ initiative by including both humans, agriculture, and animals.
The Center for Disease Control (CDC) created this video on the idea of 'One Health.' The video talks about implementing the idea of 'one health'. The main points listed in this video were as follows:
Foster collaborative relationships between human health, animal health, and environmental health partners.
Improve communication between sectors.
Coordinate disease surveillance activities.
Develop uniform messaging to the public.
This blog post is part of the IPFD Student Project 2017 by Ariel Minardi.
For an overview of her project and links to other material on Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) and Prudent Use of Antibiotics see:
IPFD Student Project 'B.A.R.K. | Bacterial Antimicrobial Resistance Knowledge' - Overview
Harvey, Felicity. "Implementing a One Health Approach: The Example of Antimicrobial Resistance – the UK Perspective." Public and International Health Directorate Department of Health. 30 Jun. 2015. Web.
"One Health." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 25 Oct. 2016. Web.
Queenan, Kevin, Barbara HÃ¤sler, and Jonathan Rushton. "A One Health Approach to Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance: Is There a Business Case for It?" International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 48.4 (2016): 422-27. Web.
PSA to all of the breeders. Please avoid using antibiotics during pregnancy and whelping unless absolutely necessary. Through breeding your dogs with antibiotics, you are also breeding super bugs. Antibiotics can also be detrimental to growth and development of the puppy. Some antibiotics even cause fetal death. Always consult your veterinarian before using antibiotics.
Did you know that by 2050, superbugs will kill 10 million MORE people than cancer will? This huge problem not only affects our beloved pets, but it is a serious threat to the human population.
Click here for the BBC article and check out this great podcast from the UK!
Podcast Link: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b07djvbp
Downloadable Version: BBCInsideScience-20160609.mp3
Amazing video brought to you by The Ohio State University that emphasizes the importance of One Health and how we are better together tackling this devastating issue.
This video stresses that these issues involve not just a person but everything in their environment - other people, animals, plants, their health, etc. It is why a one-health approach to the problem is necessary. Stay tuned for more resources on antimicrobial resistance!
Click here for more information on this video and Ohio State's involvement in AMR.
Tim Landers, PhD, RN, CNP, CIC from The Ohio State University College of Nursing was kind enough to sit down and answer some questions about antimicrobial resistance from the nursing perspective. He is a wealth of knowledge, and this short video is worth a listen!
What’s all this talk about super bugs? Isn’t that what bit Spider Man and gave him those super-spidey powers? Unfortunately, the super bugs I am referring to are not siding with the good guys. These bugs are mutated to withstand even the strongest of antibiotics, rendering them unstoppable… or are they?
Here’s some background on AMR… Antimicrobial resistance happens when bacteria become overexposed to antimicrobials (aka antibiotics.) Through a combination of natural selection and mutation, these bacteria become resistant, and the antimicrobials can’t effectively work. This is where the term “super bug” was coined. Seemingly normal bacteria transforms into an indestructible force bent on world domination.
Who is at fault for this? I don’t mean to point any fingers, but it’s kind of us. Yes, the human race is responsible for creating these terrifying, little organisms that in fact do nothing for us but cause our own destruction. So why would humans sabotage themselves by creating this devastating problem that kills people and animals across the world? The issue is, many people are unknowingly doing this.
Have you ever been given a course of antibiotics and stopped taking them when you felt better? Makes sense, right? You aren’t sick anymore, so why would you need to keep taking the medication? What many people aren’t aware of is that when you don’t finish that entire course of antibiotics, some of the bacteria gets left behind. These bacteria are not enough to cause current clinical signs. However, having been exposed to the antibiotic, they can mutate and become resistant so that that same antibiotic loses efficacy against the mutated bacteria.
This is just one instance on how humans can unknowingly create these super bugs.
AMR and prudent use of antibiotics is a hot topic right now all over the world; from the UN and World Health Organization - to country, regional and local levels. However, there is a lot of work to be done to get the appropriate information to the right people in order to educate and change behaviors.. I am here to help uncover mysteries and bring to light information on what we are doing as breeders, pet owners, and veterinarians that may be contributing to this pandemic. No sole group is to blame for this, but together, we can form a global power to tackle the super bugs.
Just remember… “With great power comes great responsibility.”