The Norwegian Lundehund is an ancient dog breed that was used to hunt seabirds along most of the Norwegian coast. The breed name is a combination of the Norwegian words ”lunde” (puffin, Fratercula arctica) and ”hund”, dog. Although the breed’s exact age is not known, there are descriptions of the use of dogs for puffin hunting that are more than 400 years old.
Article: The History and the future of the Norwegian Lundehund – the Puffin dog
Author: Ingvild S. Espelien
JOURNAL of the International Society for Preservation of Primitive Aboriginal Dogs
excerpt... "This article is based on the book “Lundehundboka” which was published in 2012 as part of the Norwegian Lundehund Club’s 50 years anniversary. The article is also based on the breed compendium. It is produced by The Breeding Council of the Norwegian Lundehund Club in cooperation with members of the Club."
National kennel clubs and breed clubs (see, e.g. Breeding/Health Strategy Documents, below)
Population-level statistics (see, e.g., Swedish Insurance Data, below)
Breed club surveys
The basis of breed/conformation shows is the judging of pedigree dogs against the 'Breed Standard', which is a picture in words that describes the range of features that are deemed appropriate for the breed. The major international standards are:
"The project objective is to improve the Norwegian lundehunds health and welfare by reducing the risk of developing gastric / intestinal disorder intestinal lymfangiektasi (IL) and to enhance fertility, while the breed's distinctive features are preserved.
Organization and foundation of the project
NKK Health Boards and Board has given permission to outcross of Norwegian Lundehund with the following three Breeds: Norwegian Buhund, Icelandic Sheepdog and norbotten spets. Crossing project will planned and implemented by the Norwegian Lundehund Club."
An ongoing chronicle...
Articles on the NLK's Lundehund Crossbreeding Project are available here.
Pairings information and photos can be found here.
"The chairman of Norsk Lundehund Klubb has received an inquiry on the crossbreed project from a member of the club living abroad. The inquiry is related to the project initiating background, and NLK wants all interested parties to have the opportunity to read the answers. Hence, the two questions below and the answers from NLK are translated from Norwegian into English, German and French.
Further questions may be directed to the chairman of Norsk Lundehund Klubb, Rita Daverdin, e-mail email@example.com or by mobil phone +47 92236662.
Was the project initiated
1. under pressure from Norsk Kennel Klub (NKK): either NLK themselves will initiate a cross breeding project, or the project will be carried out under the supervision of NKK?
2. by NLK without interference/pressure from NKK?
The Norwegian Lundehund Club’s outcross project – Answers to questions forwarded by Stein Erik Greter:
1. The project was initiated as a result of the findings NLK made during the work with the breeding strategy for the "Norsk Lundehund" (RAS) and was included in an Action Plan for NLK after a workshop on RAS at Starum, an open meet ing at Øysanden and an open hearing, all in 2013.
The outcross project is carried out by NLK in cooperation with and under the control of the Norwegian Kennel Club (NKK), and in collaboration with NordGen and Norsk Genressurssenter.
2. NKK has not demanded that NLK start the outcross project. But, the high occurrence of IL and other intestinal problems, the reduced fertility and the high degree of inbreeding made it clear that NLK risked having a cross breeding program imposed on us, or that such projects were launched elsewhere (eg in Finland and the USA). Finland had already raised the issue of inbreeding and health problems in the Lundehund breed with the Nordic Kennel Union. The signals were quite unmistakable. We were clearly urged by the leader of NKK’s health panel, Astrid Indrebø, (a meeting with Indrebø in Oslo in 2013 where Rita Daverdin and Hanna Gautun were present) that NLK would be best off by taking charge of an outcross project ourselves.
3. Project dogs might be placed in other Nordic countries than Norway in the future. There are, however, a number of issues to address before this can be done. We are currently considering these matters and working out the formalities. In any case, ONLY dogs resulting from combinations approved by NLK and NKK will be accepted in the project."
"The Norwegian Lundehund is an example of a Nordic dog breed with extremely low genetic variation and high level of inbreeding. The breed has relatively high mortality due to the disease intestinal lymphangiectasis (IL). Norwegian Lundehund Club is in the process of designing a new breeding strategy for the breed, as part of the joint Nordic cooperation described in this article. The strategy will be to cross individuals from other closely related Nordic dog breeds into the Lundehund. This will increase the genetic variation and reduce inbreeding, which is expected to reduce the problem of IL. The results from the SNP analysis are an important tool to assess which breeds will be relevant to use for crossing."
excerpt...NordGen coordinates a project with researchers from Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Norway, where DNA collected from Nordic dog breeds is analyzed on a so-called SNP chip. Results from SNP chips can be used to identify and quantify genetic variation between individuals and breeds. The novelty of the SNP chip technology compared to previous methods is that 170,000 genetic markers may be examined simultaneously. Some of these will be neutral whereas others are of great importance to the traits of interest (including disease characteristics). Molecular studies of dogs traditionally used a small number of neutral markers (typically <30). This joint Nordic cooperation provides extremely useful information in terms of finding areas of the genome causing certain genetic diseases and quantifying the degree of inbreeding and genetic variation within and between breeds. These results can be used to plan breeding of the Nordic dog breeds so that both the loss of genetic variation and the increase in inbreeding are reduced. The results will be used to answer questions such as 1) in which breeds should focus be on increasing the effective population size, 2) in which breeds should crossbreeding with individuals from other breeds be considered, and 3) which breeds should be used for crossing. In the long term, data can be used for selection against harmful alleles and for the maintenance of adaptive variation.
Low neutral genetic variability in a specialist puffin hunter: the Norwegian Lundehund.
Melis C1, Borg ÅA, Espelien IS, Jensen H.
First published: 18 September 2012
"low genetic variability in Lundehund was not surprising, given the two strong bottlenecks in the 1940s and the 1960s. The relatedness of Lundehund to other Nordic small spitzes should be investigated in the view of possible outcrossing."
Variant detection and runs of homozygosity in next generation sequencing data elucidate the genetic background of Lundehund syndrome
The SKK - Svenka Kennelklubben (Swedish Kennel Club, in English), is Sweden's largest organisation dedicated to dogs and dog owners. We represent the interests of our 300,000 members – first time dog owners, experienced breeders, hunters, dog lovers, puppy buyers, exhibitors, agility competitors and many more.
Royal Canin is a global leader in pet health nutrition. In an industry that continues to adapt to popular trends in cat and dog food, our mission will remain the same; to constantly bring, through Health Nutrition and shared knowledge, the most precise nutritional solution for cats' and dogs' health nutrition needs, by building on constantly deepened scientific knowledge and Royal Canin's roots in the feline and canine professional networks.
Agria Djurförsäkring (Agria Animal Insurance) is one of the world's leading animal insurers specialising in small animal and equine insurance. The company dominates Scandinavian pet insurance and has recognised the importance of working closely with the veterinary profession since insuring the first horse in 1890.
Mars Veterinary is a business unit of Mars Petcare, the world’s largest pet care provider. Their mission is to facilitate responsible pet care by enhancing the well-being and relationship between pets, pet owners, breeders, shelters and veterinarians through valuable insights into pets as individuals.
Mars Veterinary is a proud sponsor of IPFD's Harmonization of Genetic Testing for Dogs Initiative.
The VDH - Verband für das Deutsche Hundewesen (German Kennel Club in English) is the foremost organisation representing the interests of dog-owners throughout Germany – the first address to find out everything there is to know on the subject of life with dogs, on dog sports and on dog breeding. As an umbrella organisation for its 175 member clubs the VDH today represents more than 650,000 members.
Also see the: Rasselexikon (BREEDOPEDIA) - http://www.vdh.de/welpen/rasse
A comprehensive online reference of 343 breeds including a detailed description of each breed which covers the general appearance, the character, the history and coat. Some breed profiles contain a video presentation (in German). In addition: the Breedopedia includes addresses of VDH member clubs and breeders with VDH-seal of approval. The breed listing is alphabetical and a specific breed search function is available.
The French Kennel Club - SOCIÉTÉ CENTRALE CANINE (SCC) - was founded in 1881 as a non-profit organization by dog fanciers aiming to replenish native dog breeds and to bring in and establish foreign ones as well. The Société Centrale Canine became soon the reference canine organization, being recognized as a public interest organization by decree of the Council of State in April 1914. The SCC is proud to be one of the founders of the FCI in 1911, together with the Kennel Clubs from Germany, Austria, Belgium and the Netherlands.
Agria is one of the world’s leading animal insurers, specialising in small animal and equine insurance. Founded in Sweden over 120 years ago, Agria came to the UK in 2009 and is now a prominent feature of the UK pet insurance industry. In the UK, Agria insures cats, dogs and rabbits.
The Fédération Cynologique Internationale is the World Canine Organisation. It includes 92 members and contract partners (one member per country) that each issue their own pedigrees and train their own judges.
The FCI has five sections: Europe, The Americas and the Caribbean, Asia and the Pacific, Middle-East and Africa.
Founded and originally incorporated as a private not for profit foundation in 1966, the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals will soon celebrate its 50th anniversary. Its initial mission: To provide radiographic evaluation, data management, and genetic counseling for canine hip dysplasia.
While the OFA continues to focus on hip dysplasia, today’s OFA Mission, “To improve the health and well being of companion animals through a reduction in the incidence of genetic disease,” reflects the organization’s expansion into other inherited diseases and other companion animals such as cats.
Suomen Kennelliitto (Finnish Kennel Club, in English) - Established in 1889, the Finnish Kennel Club is a nationwide expert organisation on canine matters. Its aim is to promote the breeding of pedigree dogs, support diverse dog-related activities and improve dog-keeping standards in Finland. FKC disseminates expert information and serves as a comprehensive lobbying organisation for Finnish and international dog activities.
The Kennel Club list of DNA tests available for each breed along with an indication as to whether the test is part of the Assured Breeder Scheme (recommended or required) and whether it is recorded on the Kennel Club registration database: Find your Breed's testing here.
For many years, Agria Animal Insurance, Sweden (Agria Djurförsäkring, Stockholm, Sweden) has supported veterinary research and provided basic statistics on diagnoses for health and life claims to Swedish breed clubs. Since 1995, Agria has collaborated with and funded researchers, from universities in Sweden and other countries, to produce scientific publications on descriptive and analytical research from their database.
Since 2002, continuing their devotion to the health and well-being of dogs and their ongoing cooperation with the Swedish Kennel Club, Agria has produced information on both health care and life insurance claims in a format requested by and developed in consultation with breed clubs. Initially, information from 1995-2002 was compiled on 80 breeds and Mixed Breeds on 11 CDs (see theAgria Dog Breed Profiles). The CDs were given free to those breed clubs and remaining copies are available to the public.
Subsequently, the material has been developed into an even more accessible form - the Updates. These are given to Swedish breed clubs, and the information is incorporated into various health programs.
Updates (2006-2011) for 115 breeds are available in our Downloads or links through our Pedigreed Dogs database(access is restricted to Advanced Members and IPFD Partners)