The Toller is a medium-sized, powerful, compact, balanced, well-muscled dog; medium to heavy in bone, with a high degree of agility, alertness and determination. The Toller is highly intelligent, easy to train and has great endurance. A strong and able swimmer, he is a natural and tenacious retriever on land and from water setting himself for springy action the moment the slightest indication is given that retrieving is required.
National kennel clubs and breed clubs (see, e.g. Breeding/Health Strategy Documents, below)
Population-level statistics (see, e.g., Swedish Insurance Data, below)
Breed club surveys
There are numerous breed standards.
The basis of breed/conformation shows is the judging of pedigree dogs against the 'Breed Standard', which is a picture in words that describes the range of features that are deemed appropriate for the breed.
Written by Gail MacMillan. Photography: Jim Gourlay. This article was published in the January/February 2002 issue of Saltscapes.
Excerpt... "Apparently, for more than 200 years, dog fanciers in Yarmouth County, NS, the recognized ancestral home of the Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever, had known they had a good thing in what they chose to call Little River Duck Dogs. They had been in no hurry to share their secret."
The Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever Paperback – November 1, 1996
by Alison Strang
Alison Strange - one of the breeders from the start of the breed have written a bock that covers the history, the breed standard and many other wonderful things about Tollers in her book, that is on every Toller home bookshelf:
POPULATION GENETICS OF NOVA SCOTIA DUCK TOLLING RETRIEVERS
Data from: Maki, K 2010 Population structure and genetic diversity of worldwide Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever and Lancashire Heeler dog populations. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics; doi:10.1111/j.1439-0388.2010.00851.x
Research update information is available for CDDY; formally known as chondrodysplasia or skeletal dysplasia - "Dogs have very short limbs and sometimes very crooked legs." Updated research February 2018