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Eye Health in Dogs

    Managing canine eye health - articles and resources for breeders, owners, veterinarians and organizations...


    PRESENTATION: Eye Health in Dogs

    Authors: Berit Wallin Håkansson, Text and illustrations, Sheila Crispin, Photographs and concept, Nils Wallin Håkansson, Photographs, concept

    This text is a compilation of the long experiences of three Veterinary Ophthalmologists (DECVO). It explains different eye and adnexal problems in dogs that are the immediate result of breeding towards exaggerated breed typical features."


    These presentations provide graphic rich illustrations of the adnexa - structures and tissues around the eye - and highlight the variability across breeds, based on, e.g. anatomy and conformation and physical characteristics of the breed / dog. The authors have defined 'Critical Control Points', visible to essentially any observer, that define the stage at which the condition of the adnexa becomes or creates a health or welfare concern. It should be born in mind that there are many health concerns related to the internal/functional structures of the eye that are not covered by this material.

    "The term Critical Control Point, CCP, is suggested to describe an outer limit that must not be exceeded.
    The line should be drawn at physiognomies that increase the risk of ocular illness."


    • The normal eye
    • Breed typical eye problems
    • Critical Control Points
    • Exophthalmos, protruding eye
    • The blink mechanism and tear film
    • Enophthalmos, sunken eye
    • Entropion
    • Medial
    • Lateral
    • Upper
    • Lower
    • Entropion "full circle"
    • Eyelid tacking
    • Surgical correction (I)
    • Ectropion
    • Diamond eye
    • Macroblepharon
    • Surgical correction (II)
    • Trichiasis
    • Dry eye
    • "Cherry eye"
    • Keratoconjunctivits sicca
    • Summary



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