Laboratory personnel should have a minimum of a Bachelor of Science degree with completed course work in molecular biology, biotechnology, biochemistry, molecular genetics, or other course work that covers PCR and recombinant DNA/RNA theory and practice. Some commensurate job-related training and experience may be substituted. Hands-on training, including the review of standard operating procedures or manuals, should be completed for each technique under the supervision of experienced personnel. A new employee will receive orientation and skills training. New or established employees may receive training on new methods given by the method developer. Although the amount of time required for training will vary depending on the procedure and the technique, each researcher should demonstrate that they could successfully perform the assay through analyses of positive and negative control samples before being allowed to analyze biological samples without supervision. These recommendations for the initial demonstration of capability are based on current requirements for conventional microbiological methods. Each researcher also is expected to be knowledgeable in laboratory safety and QA/QC procedures.