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Necrotizing Meningoencephalitis



Disease Name
Necrotizing Meningoencephalitis
Disease Name 2
Pug Dog Encephalitis, PDE
Gene Name
linked marker test- - DLA class II genes
Test Type
Genetic Disease/Disorder
Necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME), also known as Pug dog encephalitis (PDE), is a progressive, fatal disease causing inflamation of the central nervous system. Symptoms of NME vary depending on the area of the brain damaged, but can include: seizures, depression, ataxia, abnormal gait and blindness, trouble walking, cervical pain, fever, head tilt, deafness, falling, facial paralysis, trouble swallowing and weakness in limbs, circling, behavior changes, back pain. Age of onset averaged 18 months. It has been reported that younger, Female, fawn-colored Pugs are more likely to develop NME than older, male and non-fawn colored individuals. Reasons are not currently fully confirmed or understood. Dogs that have two identical copies of the NME associated markers have a higher than average observed risk for NME in their lifetime. Currently, the only tests available are linked marker tests, which can indicate risk only and are not predictive.
Details 2
Necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME), also known as Pug dog encephalitis (PDE), is a progressive, fatal disease causing inflamation of the central nervous system. From Levine et al, 2008: Although the histopathologic features of necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME) have been described previously, little information is available concerning the signalment, geographic distribution, seasonal onset, treatment, and survival of affected dogs... In Pugs with NME, median age at onset of clinical signs was 18 months (range, 4-113 months). Pugs with NME had a significantly lower mean weight...than control Pugs... Mean survival in Pugs with NME was 93 days (range, 1-680 days)...Pugs with NME are most commonly young adult female dogs. Although further investigation is needed to determine the optimal treatment of NME, anticonvulsive drugs appear to beneficially affect duration of survival. (Levine et al, 2008)
Greer, KA., Wong, AK., Liu, H., Famula, TR., Pedersen, NC., Ruhe, A., Wallace, M., Neff, MW. : Necrotizing meningoencephalitis of Pug dogs associates with dog leukocyte antigen class II and resembles acute variant forms of multiple sclerosis. Tissue Antigens 76:110-8, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20403140. DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-0039.2010.01484.x.
Published 2
Barber, R.M., Schatzberg, S.J., Corneveaux, J.J., Allen, A.N., Porter, B.F., Pruzin, J.J., Platt, S.R., Kent, M., Huentelman, M.J. : Identification of risk Loci for necrotizing meningoencephalitis in pug dogs. J Hered :S40-6, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21846746. DOI: 10.1093/jhered/esr048.
Published 3
Safra, N., Pedersen, NC., Wolf, Z., Johnson, EG., Liu, HW., Hughes, AM., Young, A., Bannasch, DL. : Expanded dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping reveals spurious class II associations. Vet J :, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21741283. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2011.06.023.
Published 4
Levine, JM., Fosgate, GT., Porter, B., Schatzberg, SJ., Greer, K. : Epidemiology of necrotizing meningoencephalitis in Pug dogs. J Vet Intern Med 22:961-8, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18647157. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.0137.x.
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